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## GRAVITY

GRAVIDADE

(Portuguese Translation by Marcelo Moreira Jr.)

Click onArtigos.## Lew Paxton Price

Copyright (C) 2005 by Lew Paxton Price

[Developed by Lew Paxton Price and Herbert Martin Gibson as part of a more comprehensive theory

published between 1999 and 2001 in the series,Behind Light's Illusion.]## This article is about a serendipitous revelation that has been examined through the years by many qualified people. Some liked it and some did not. Some of those who liked it succeeded in placing it before the eyes of others. Those who did not like it could find no fault with it. Only one theoretical physicist who was working along similar lines was willing to examine it.

On April 24, 1965, a number of U. S. Air Force personnel, myself included, arrived at Deols Air Base near the town of Chateauroux, France. Deols was to be a temporary base from which to fly "round robin" missions throughout the Middle East and Europe. Between missions, there were only a few interesting activities available and the base library was well stocked. Since I had graduated in 1960, I had been waiting for an opportunity to look into the phenomenon we call light, so I eagerly chose to use the library in my spare time.

The thoughts presented here are part of a more comprehensive theory that is "old news" for two reasons. First, it has been largely ignored by the scientific community since it first intruded upon my thoughts many years ago. Second, its fundamentals appear to have been known before recorded history even though the back-up math was lost. The theory surfaced a few times during our recorded history - again without back-up math - and at least one of its proponents who refused to recant was burned at the stake.

This theory, which actually discovered me, eventually led to the discovery of the back-up math necessary to prove its worth. It aided me immensely during fourteen months of training in which I absorbed postgraduate electronic and electrical theory for communications (subjects which were not taught at any college at that time) courtesy of my new employer, Pacific Telephone.

Some additional back-up material later appeared in [magazine]. Until articles on [subjects] were published by [editor], I was not aware that others had proven so much in regard to a dynamic ether. My thanks to the editors of [magazine], past and present, and to the researchers and authors who present such enlightenment.

The discovery that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, as well as other new and upsetting discoveries in all related fields have provided more data which, although often misinterpreted and sometimes suppressed, tend to aid in proving our case. So this article is being presented at a time when the old eclipsing arguments are no longer sacrosanct. It explains how the theory discovered me and presents the part of the theory that pertains to gravity.

We had been taught that light moves through space which is a void of nothingness, that light has both wave-like and particle-like behavior, that it moves at a constant velocity regardless of the velocity of its source, and that it is created by electrons.

After examining what was known of light, my attention was drawn to the electron and the Michelson-Morley experiment. In school, I had been dubious when told that the medium does not exist in which light can move as a wave - as proved by the MM experiment. One of our courses had been on critical thinking. Therefore, I was aware that failure to prove the existence of something does NOT prove its non-existence. The work of men like Christian Huygens, Thomas Young, Andre Marie Ampere, Hans Christian Oersted, Augustin Jean Fresnel, Michael Faraday, James Clerk Maxwell, and Hendrik Antoon Lorentz seemed to be more than adequate proof that light is a wave moving through a medium. Furthermore, the assertion that light has the qualities of both a wave and a particle does not provide any real proof that light is a particle. In the experiences of the real world, a wave can act like a particle but a particle cannot act like a wave. For instance, why should a particle slow down as it moves through glass and then speed up again after it leaves the glass? This is the property of a wave moving through a medium. All that the MM experiment appeared to prove was that the medium did not conform to the rules established by human scientists.

As the history of physics unfolded, the strangeness of what is now called electron "spin" began to surface. Between the late 1920s and early 1930s, the fact that the electron "spun" was grudgingly accepted by the scientific community. Spin was said to be much like angular momentum, each electron always spins, and each always spins at the same speed. This is contrary to the laws of conservation of momentum and energy, which was a fact that upset the particle physicists who held the high ground in physics at that time. The phenomenon of spin has been only dubiously explained by them to this day.

My own explanation for electron spin, arrived upon after a few hours of reflection, was surprisingly uncomplicated and based upon the concrete information available rather than the fantasies necessary to save outmoded theories. Obviously, to have innate and perpetual spin, the electron must be governed and be using an energy source that is, to our limited view, almost inexhaustible. Spin itself may or may not be angular momentum as we know it, and even the scientists of the 1930 era acknowledged this fact. Is the electron too strange to be true?

Every day there exist within our world entities which conform to the aforementioned criteria. We call them whirlpools, whirlwinds, waterspouts, tornadoes, typhoons, hurricanes, and many names in other languages. Each is a vortex in which a medium is propelled by a pressure difference - higher pressure within the medium and reduced pressure at the center of the vortex. The resultant incoming path of the medium at any point is at 45 degrees to a line drawn from the vortex center through that point (a radial).

Any mass of the medium that enters the vortex center in one second has a kinetic energy that is equal to (1/2)mv^{2}. We can measure the 45 degree inflow of the medium at any point to find the resultant velocity vector. But the actual mass entering the vortex center is found by calculating the velocity along the radial through the point measured. So the mass taken in within any given time period is found with the shorter radial velocity vector, "v", and the velocity of this mass is found with the 45 degree resultant vector, "(2^{1/2})v". Therefore the kinetic energy, "E_{k}", of the inflow (what would become energy if the inflowing medium were stopped cold) can then be expressed as follows:E

_{k}= (1/2)m[(2^{1/2})v]^{2}= (1/2)m[(2)v^{2}] = mv^{2}After this gem of enlightenment, I knew that what was developing was much more than a theory involving light and the electron.

If the electron is a vortex, it must be composed of an inflowing medium. It's mass would be measured as the "Mass" (using a capital "M") of the medium inflow per unit of time. Som = M/torM = mtwhere "M" is the mass of the medium, "m" is mass as we know it, and "t" is time. If light is a wave within such a medium the speed of light would be the radial reaction speed of the medium. If the center of the vortex is a vacuum, the radial velocity of the medium at the center would be the speed of light. Should the inflow suddenly cease, the kinetic energy of the inflow would be released and would be equal to mc^{2}or (M/t)c^{2}where M is the Mass of the medium. So:E_{k}= mc^{2}

This is the known mass/energy equivalency for the electron at rest expressed in a dynamic form. However, it has been derived rather easily from (1) acknowledging that a medium for light exists, (2) that the electron is a vortex composed of this medium, and (3) that m = M/t.

I have assumed that the electron is a vortex composed of a medium which transmits one half-wave of light each time the electron changes direction. Electron movement can be shown to create electromagnetic radiation in the known frequencies. A further assumption can be made at this point.If the electron is a vortex, then very likely all subatomic entities are vortices or combinations of vortices, and the entire universe is composed of a fluid medium which we might call "dynamic ether". I have given the dynamic ether a shorter name:Nether. This was the name given to the underlying substance in Greek mythology.

If subatomic entities are vortices or combinations thereof, this would explain why particle physicists discover many new transitory particles each year. In their destruction of subatomic entities through high-speed collisions, they are very much like children throwing rocks into a pond and then measuring the size and mass of each drop that is splashed upward. This is a great way to make a living and if job security can last until all the particles have been discovered, one never need worry about going broke.

The Common Vortex

All vortices such as those mentioned have certain characteristics in common.

(1) Each is composed of a fluid medium which moves inward along a plane (two dimensions) with a thickness (a third dimension), and which turns gradually (due to the inertia of the medium) into a dimension that is perpendicular to the plane.

(2) Each is driven by a difference in pressure between that of the medium and a relative vacuum at the vortex center.

(3) Each has inflow vectors inward along radials extending from the vortex center. These vectors merely show the path of the actual mass of the medium entering the vortex center. They do not show the actual directions taken by the medium as it approaches the vortex center.

(4) Each has actual directions taken by the medium that are at 45 degrees from the radials. At any point in the plane of the inflow, the actual direction of the inflowing medium is at 45 degrees from the radial passing through that point.

(5) Each endures until the pressure difference between the medium and relative vacuum at its center is reduced below its effective level.

A vortex is formed because the inertia of the medium will not allow it to move abruptly in a direction perpendicular to its path. The medium is forced to move in the curved path of a vortex.

Where Does It Go?

By this time, the reader should be asking the question: "If matter is composed of vortices, where does the inflowing nether go?" Einstein proposed a space-time of four dimensions: three dimensions of space and a fourth dimension of time. In his theory, the four dimensions were unified as space-time. If instead, the universe is composed of a fluid existing in three dimensions, and if that fluid is moving alongthrough time(which is a fourth dimension), it is possible that matter is a rupture creating a hole in the nether that allows nether to flow backward along the fourth dimension. In the case of anti-matter, created at the same time as matter, the hole would allow forward flow along the fourth dimension. Matter and anti-matter would be nether flows into the past and into the future respectively. The back-up material for this concept exceeds what is appropriate for an article on gravity, but such material does exist.

Einstein seems to have had similar theories regarding time. It is my belief that Einstein would have easily arrived at the theory provided herein - if he had realized the implications of electron spin.

The Electron

In nether theory, the electron would appear in the mind's eye (it is invisible to sight) as a circle suspended in space. For this discussion, it may be considered to be hanging vertically. It is always in motion, but for the purposes of this explanation, it is seen as being at rest. If we view the circle from the edge, it is a line. On one side of the line everything is essentially normal with nether doing whatever it usually does. On the other side of the line is a vortex with the medium moving into the circle at the speed of light. This is the "mouth" of the vortex.

The circle is the entrance to the fourth dimension. The fourth dimension is perpendicular all three of the dimensions in which the nether resides. The inflow is still essentially within a plane for reasons that are too voluminous for this article. This means that the vortex mouth may point in any direction and still be perpendicular to the two dimensions of the inflow plane.The inflow has inertia and is taking a curved path. This means that energy-wise it is more efficient for the circle (the hole) to move in the direction that the vortex mouth is pointed. Indeed, this is the case with electrons, which is why they curve when entering a magnetic field. The magnetic field orients the electrons and their mouths pull them along like little space-eating bugs in a kid's computer game.

When the electrons are forced to move in a certain direction, they find it more efficient to orient themselves so that their mouths are pointed in their direction of motion. If the motion is along a wire, a flux field is formed by the combined nether inflows. This is the key to magnetism, cross-talk between the old telephone open wires, transformers, electric motors, generators, alternators, radio, and other electrical phenomena of our age.

An electron can be created from the collision of two gamma rays. Always, a positron (mirror "anti-particle" to the electron) must be created at the same time. Apparently, the extreme energy from the colliding gamma rays creates a hole into the fourth dimension. We see this as two holes. Every dimension has two directions which are opposites (such as up and down, north and south, east and west). In one direction of the fourth dimension, a hole is held open by a vortex we call an electron. In the opposite direction of the fourth dimension, a hole is held open by a vortex we call a positron.The holes are held open by the centrifugal force of the vortices. Centrifugal force is the product of mass and acceleration. If centrifugal force is given the symbol "F

_{c}", the equation is: F_{c}= mv^{2}/r in which "m" is mass, "v" is velocity, and "r" is the radius of curvature of the path taken by the mass.

The mass of inflowing nether moving at a high velocity at the circumference of the vortex center holds open a path against the nether pressure, allowing the nether to continue to flow into the fourth dimension and thus keep the hole into the fourth dimension open.

If something should happen that threatens to make the surrounding nether pressure exceed the centrifugal force holding the hole open, the radius is automatically reduced which increases the centrifugal force. If something should happen that threatens to make the centrifugal force exceed the surrounding nether pressure, the radius is automatically increased which reduces the centrifugal force. Thus, the electron (or positron) is a self-governing entity that has dynamic stability, and therefore, continues to exist.In a vortex medium such as nether, only one size of single vortex can exist as a stable entity for any particular nether pressure. This means that entities other than the electron and the positron are formed in different ways. These ways have been published (by myself) and they are all vortices or combinations of vortices of a different variety which can only exist for long when in certain combinations. This is in keeping with what is known of the other subatomic entities.

Properties of Dynamic Ether

Before electron spin was accepted, the properties of ether took forms which were varied and difficult to prove. If one assumes that the electron is a vortex within a fluid universe, the properties of nether (dynamic ether) become more apparent.

I. Nether must be a fluid under pressure.Otherwise a vortex would not form.

II. Nether must have inertia.Otherwise, a vortex could not form.

III. Nether must be frictionless.Otherwise, light would not maintain the same energy over long distances.

IV. Nether must be non-particulate.Otherwise, it could not be frictionless. The idea of a non-particulate universe, one in which subatomic entities are not particles but vortices instead, makes more sense to me than the continuing discoveries of more and more particles with temporary existences and with sizes that grow smaller and smaller. The ultimate in smaller particle size is a particle that is infinitely small. A fluid composed of infinitely small particles would be the same as a fluid that is non-particulate. So if particle physicists (and those who want an ether that is composed of particles) wish to call nether a fluid made of infinitely small particles, that is all right with me. This is merely a matter of semantics - and particles seem to make them happy.

The Vectors of Micro-Inflow

The inflow into a subatomic entity, such as the electron, is composed of three parts. At any given point in the plane of the inflow, they form an isosceles right triangle of vectors. One of these is the radial vector which points toward and produces an inward force that I call micro-gravity. A second is tangential (perpendicular to the radial vector) and this is the one that produces what is called "spin". The third is the resultant (hypotenuse) of the first two and is both the actual direction of the inflowing medium and the vector that produces what is called "charge". This is a simplification without further explanation. The complexity involved exceeds the scope of an article on gravity.Shortly after we arrived back at our home base in New Jersey, I sent for copies of Einstein's last work before his death. When the copies arrived I realized that he had been certain that light was a wave, but had not understood its true nature. A few weeks later, another thought occurred while I was contemplating the nature of time. It was apparent that time dilation, due to relative nether velocity, was a necessary consequence of dynamic ether theory, and the equation for it was easily derived in a few simple steps. Einstein had been correct insofar as the equations were concerned.

Attempts to interest theoretical physicists in 1965 were very much like attempts to interest them today, and it seemed that so simple a theory would be discovered by a theoretical physicist at any time. It was even possible that one of them had already discovered it. So I gave up on them. Later, I showed the infant theory to Mart Gibson. Just before my parent's death in 1998, Mart wanted to begin work on the theory again. A lot of time had passed and no physicist had discovered what had becomeourtheory. Subsequently, the publishing ofBehind Light's Illusion, a series of small books on nether theory, was begun.

Research on Einstein led to his autobiographical notes. According to them (Einstein's words), "The special theory owes its origins to Maxwell's equations of the electromagnetic field.... Maxwell's equations are the simplest Lorentz-invariant field equations which can be postulated for an anti-symmetric tensor derived from a vector field." Before the Michelson-Morley experiment was performed, Einstein was working on a theory of light as a series of waves. Before his death, Einstein was still working on it with tensor analysis. The second postulate of the special theory is a way to include the strong possibility of light as a series of waves because only a wave has constant velocity regardless of the velocity of its source. It seems apparent that, had Einstein paid more attention to electron spin, he would quickly have arrived at the nature of the dynamic ether.

The Gravity Funnel

When one acknowledges that there is an inflow of a dynamic ether into matter, the nature of gravity becomes apparent. At any given distance above or outward from a planetary surface an invisible sphere exists which is a cross-section of the inflow. There are an infinite number of these spheres. At every spherical cross-section the amount of nether Mass flowing through must be the same as that flowing through every other spherical cross-section. Because the area, "A", of each sphere varies with its distance from the planetary center, the cross-section of the inward flow varies as the radius squared of any particular spherical cross-section. This means that the velocity of the inflow must increase as the inflow passes through the cross-sections moving toward the planetary surface. Using "~" as a symbol meaning "proportional to", and "r" as the radius of a spherical cross-section, A~1/r^{2}orA~r.^{-2}Think of water moving through a filled kitchen funnel. The funnel has the largest cross-section at the top and the smallest cross-section at the bottom. In between the top and the bottom, the cross-sections vary from larger to smaller. The same amount of water must flow through each cross-section within the same period of time because no water can escape or enter from the funnel perimeter. The smaller the cross-section, the greater must be the velocity of the water moving through the funnel, so the water moving through the funnel accelerates as it moves from funnel top to funnel bottom. The same is true of a river. The water in a river flows slowly where the river is wide and deep, and flows very quickly (forms rapids) where the river is shallow and narrow.

Gravity may be considered a movement of nether through a funnel, much like a kitchen funnel that is shaped a bit differently - yet a funnel in almost every other respect. Therefore, in this article a "gravity well" will henceforth be called a "gravity funnel".

Average Gravity

The acceleration we call gravity varies with the altitude from the surface of the celestial body creating it. As an object falls, it passes through these various magnitudes of gravity. In falling, it spends more time in zones of lower gravity than it does in zones of higher gravity. So the average gravity that an object experiences as it falls cannot be found by a simple linear formula. Instead, there are two non-linear equations used to find the average gravity experienced by an object in free-fall.g

_{ave}= average gravity

g_{a}= gravity at place where object is dropped

g_{e}= gravity at the planetary surface

r_{a}= distance from planetary center to drop point

r_{e}= distance from planetary center to surface

v_{a}= nether velocity at drop point

v_{e}= nether velocity at planetary surface(1) g

_{ave}=Bg_{e}+ (1-B)g_{a}B= 1/[(r_{a}/r_{e}) +1](2) g

_{ave}= [(v_{e}- v_{a}) / H] [v_{e}+ v_{a}] / 2] H = r_{a}- r_{e}

First Proof for Gravity Equation

There is an equation that shows the value of inward (or downward) nether velocity for any large mass such a planet, sun, or moon. It can be derived in two ways. This is the first way. In it, we use earth as a typical body. However, the equation may be used for any mass.

We know that for an object in space not to be affected by earth's gravity, it must be at an infinite distance, "r_{a}", from earth's center. To fall to earth, this object must be pushed slightly toward earth. After it is pushed, it will eventually strike the earth with an impact velocity, "v_{e}", which can be found because we know that its kinetic energy, "E_{k}", on impact is equal to its original potential energy, "E_{p}". In the following, force is "F" and acceleration is "a".1.

B= 1/[(r_{a}/r_{e}) + 1]

When r_{a}is infinite, r_{a}/r_{e}is so great that "+ 1" is negligible, so:

2.B= 1/(r_{a}/r_{e}) = r_{e}/r_{a}

3. g_{ave}=Bg_{e}+ (1-B)g_{a}

At distance r_{a}, g_{a}is zero, so

4. g_{ave}=Bg_{e}= (r_{e}/r_{a})g_{e}E

_{k}= E_{p}E_{k}= (1/2)mv_{e}^{2}E_{p}= Fr_{a}F = ma or mg_{ave}1. (1/2)mv

_{e}^{2}= Fr_{a}

2. (1/2)mv_{e}^{2}= mg_{ave}r_{a}

3. (1/2)v_{e}^{2}= g_{ave}r_{a}

4. v_{e}^{2}= 2g_{ave}r_{a}

5. v_{e}^{2}= 2[(r_{e}/r_{a})g_{e}]r_{a}

6. v_{e}^{2}= 2r_{e}g_{e}

7. v_{e}= (2r_{e}g_{e})^{1/2}The energy needed for a rocket to escape from the earth is the same as its kinetic energy after falling from an infinite distance, so ve is its escape velocity.

Since the rocket would have fallen at the same rate as the nether surrounding it would have fallen, the velocity of the nether at the earth's surface would also be v_{e}. The equation v_{e}= (2r_{e}g_{e})^{1/2}can be generalized asv = (2rg)or^{1/2}g = v.^{2}/2r

So the escape velocity for any celestial body at any point is the same as the velocity of the nether moving toward the body at that point.

Second Proof for Gravity Equation

Hypothesize two spheres (gravity funnel cross-sections), one above the other, and use the earth's surface as the lower sphere called "e" with an upper sphere called "a". The object is to find the average gravity experienced by an entity falling between the two spheres. The difference between "v_{e}" and "v_{a}" is the increase in nether velocity between the two spheres. "H" is the distance (linear measure) between the two spheres. [(v_{e}- v_{a}) / H] is the increase in nether velocity per linear measure (such as a meter or a foot). Gravity is an increase in nether velocity which is normally given as an increase per second. To find the increase in nether velocity per second, we must multiply [(v_{e}- v_{a}) / H] by the average number of meters in one second.v

_{ave}= [(v_{e}+ v_{a})/2] This provides the average number of meters per second.

H = (r_{a}- r_{e}) This is the difference in the radii of the two spheres.1. g

_{ave}= [(v_{e}- v_{a}) / H] [(v_{e}+ v_{a}) / 2] for the two spheres

2. g_{ave}= [(v_{e}- v_{a}) / (r_{a}- r_{e})] [(v_{e}+ v_{a}) / 2]

3. g_{ave}= [(v_{e}- v_{a}) (v_{e}+ v_{a})] / [2 (r_{a}- r_{e})] v_{a}/v_{e}= r_{e}^{1/2}/r_{a}^{1/2}

4. g_{ave}= [v_{e}^{2}- v_{a}^{2}] / [2 (r_{a}- r_{e})] v_{a}^{2}/v_{e}^{2}= r_{e}/r_{a}

5. 2g_{ave}(r_{a}- r_{e}) = (v_{e}^{2}- v_{a}^{2}) v_{a}^{2}= v_{e}^{2}(r_{e}/r_{a})

6. 2g_{ave}(r_{a}- r_{e}) = v_{e}^{2}- [v_{e}^{2}(r_{e}/r_{a})]

7. 2g_{ave}(r_{a}- r_{e}) = v_{e}^{2}[1 - (r_{e}/r_{a})]

8. 2g_{ave}(r_{a}- r_{e}) = v_{e}^{2}[(r_{a}- r_{e}) / r_{a}]

9. 2g_{ave}= v_{e}^{2}/r_{a}

10. 2r_{a}g_{a}v_{e}= v_{e}^{2}Let "H" approach and become zero.

Then "r_{a}" becomes "r_{e}" and "g_{ave}" becomes "g_{e}".

11. 2r_{e}g_{e}= v_{e}^{2}

12. v_{e}= (2r_{e}g_{e})^{1/2}and g_{e}= v_{e}^{2}/2r_{e}For the general equation:

13.

v = (2rg)^{1/2}g = v^{2}/2r

Velocity and Energy of the Inflow

Nether flow into a planet (or any celestial body that has concentrated mass) must begin at slightly less than an infinite distance from the planetary center. If it begins at an infinite distance, it will not flow because the spherical cross-section is infinitely large. Therefore, it must begin at something less than infinity. Here the spherical cross-section is very large but not infinitely so. Ergo, the inflow is very slow at this distance. As the inflowing nether moves toward the planet, its velocity gradually increases. The kinetic energy of the nether also gradually increases - as a function of the velocity squared. Thus, the energy of the inflowing nether increases in inverse proportion to the distance (radius) from the planetary center, according to the equation: E_{k}= (1/2)mv^{2}. "1/2" and "m" remain the same at each inflow cross-section, so only "v" changes from one cross-section to the next. The velocity increases as the radius of the cross-section decreases. Therefore, "v^{2}" is inversely proportional to the radius - or "v" is inversely proportional to the square root of the radius. In equation form, it isv~rif we use "~" as the symbol for "proportional to".^{-1/2}

The Inverse Square Law (ISL)

The inverse square law is a law to which gravity appears to conform. It does not explain the nature of gravity. In mathematical form this law is: g_{a}/g_{e}= r_{e}^{2}/r_{a}^{2}. In words, the acceleration that we call gravity varies inversely with the square of the distance from the center of mass that creates the acceleration. This is an old law that is rather approximate because of variations in the composition of a celestial body at various levels and locations, but in general it is correct.

Using the equation for the inverse square law:1. g

_{a}/g_{e}= r_{e}^{2}/r_{a}^{2}

Substituting for g_{a}and g_{e}from the gravity equation:

2. (v_{a}^{2}/2r_{a}) / (v_{e}^{2}/2r_{e})= r_{e}^{2}/r_{a}^{2}

3. (v_{a}^{2}/v_{e}^{2}) (2r_{e}/2r_{a}) = (r_{e}/r_{a})^{2}

4. (v_{a}/v_{e})^{2}(r_{e}/r_{a}) = (r_{e}/r_{a})^{2}

5. (v_{a}/v_{e})^{2}= r_{e}/r_{a}

6. (v_{a}/v_{e})^{2}= 1/ (r_{a}/r_{e})

7. v_{a}/v_{e}= 1/ (r_{a}/r_{e})^{1/2}

8. v_{a}/v_{e}= (r_{a}/r_{e})^{-1/2}

So "v" is proportional to 1/r^{1/2}or r^{-1/2}

9.v ~ r^{-1/2}This is the same result found in the foregoing section on velocity and energy of the inflow. It proves that the velocity-versus-radius proportion found in the kinetic energy of the inflowing nether meets the requirement that it create the inverse square law.

There is a shorter way to explain why there is conformance to the ISL. Energy is force multiplied by distance. So if "F" is force and "s" is distance:E

_{k}= (1/2)mv^{2}= Fs = mas = mgs (Because "a" is "g" in this case.)If we see what gravity is at any given "r" and use an infinitely short "s" which would be "

ds" in terms of calculus, then "ds" would be the same for each case, and "g" would be the only variable along with "v^{2}", and this means thatg~v. We already know that "g" conforms to the ISL", so "v^{2}^{2}" also conforms to the ISL.

However, there is another law that must be obeyed by the inflowing nether.

The Mass Equivalency Law (MEL)

This law is very obvious and is the key to why the MM experiment failed to find the expected evidence for the existence of ether. It states that in any funnel, be it either a common kitchen funnel or a gravity funnel, the amount of a fluid passing through must be the same at each cross-section for any given period of time. This is true because nothing can enter or leave a funnel except at its top or bottom.

The amount of nether passing through each cross-section of a gravity funnel within a given time period is the product of (1) the density, "D", of the nether at any particular cross-section, (2) the velocity, "v", of the nether at that cross-section, and (3) the area, "A", of that cross-section. If DvA is the same for each spherical cross-section, the MEL has been satisfied.

Nether Density

Density would tend to increase in the two tangential directions of each spherical cross-section as the inflowing nether approaches the celestial object. Each of the tangential dimensions would have density increase in proportional to the inverse of the distance from the center of the celestial body (such as our planet). We can let "D_{x}" be one of these dimensions and "D_{y}" be the other. Then D_{x}~1/r and D_{y}~1/r in which "r" is the distance (sphere's radius) from the planetary center and, once again, "~" means "proportional to". Density would tend to decrease in the direction of the inward velocity vector. We can call this "D_{z}". "D_{z}" would be the inverse of the inward velocity vector. v ~ 1/r^{1/2}, so D_{z}~ r^{1/2}. Total density, "D", would be the product of D_{x}, D_{y}, and D_{z}. D_{x}D_{y}D_{z}~ (1/r) (1/r) (r^{1/2}). (1/r) (1/r) (r^{1/2}) = (r^{-1}) (r^{-1}) (r^{1/2}) = r^{-3/2}So:D~r.^{-3/2}

Compliance with the Mass Equivalency Law

The amount of any substance passing through must be the same at each cross-section for any given period of time. This is determined by the product of "D", "v", and "A". So:1. DvA~(r

^{-3/2}) (r^{-1/2}) (r^{2})

2. (r^{-3/2}) (r^{-1/2}) (r^{2}) = r^{0}= 1

Therefore:

3.DvA~1This proves that the same amount of nether passes through each cross-section.

The More Verbal Explanation

The nether (dynamic ether) "falls" from a great height in a manner that satisfies the ISL and the MEL. It falls because of the pressure of the nether being applied against the vacuum of many vortices of matter concentrated within a celestial body. The pressure of the nether forces it into spherical cross-sections which become smaller and smaller. This increases the nether density according to the reduction of cross-sectional area. The result is increasing nether density as the nether continues to fall.

There is a "wedge" effect that causes the nether density and pressure to increase tangentially even though the original radial density/pressure is much less. Think of a wedge that is splitting a piece of wood. The pressure at the sides of the wedge is greater than the pressure exerted on top of the wedge. In the case of a gravity funnel, there are an infinite number of wedge-like lengths of nether with an infinite length and infinitely small widths. Furthermore, the wedge in the wood has sides which create friction as they slide into the wood, and the friction creates resistance to motion. There are no such sides for nether moving into a gravity funnel, and therefore, there can be no friction.

The Consequences of Increasing Density

First, as the density increases, the tangential dimensions that caused it to increase are decreasing. As they decrease, any movement of nether in a tangential direction such as earth rotation or orbital motion is squeezed to the point that it is not detectable.This is why MM types of experiments tend to fail.

Think of a car moving along a track that is circular with a radius of 100 yards (or about 100 meters if you prefer). The car is moving at a velocity of 100 feet per second (or about 30 meters per second). We are viewing this motion from above in a helicopter. We can take measurements to see that the car is moving at 100 feet per second. Now, suppose that we compress the scene (just as nether is compressed when it moves within a gravity funnel) so that the track has half the radius (50 yards). We now notice that we measure the car's velocity as only 50 feet per second (half of what it was). Now we compress the track a bit more until it is only 25 yards in radius (one-quarter of what it was) and we measure the car's velocity as only 25 feet per second. We continue to compress the track until it has a radius of one inch (2.54 cm). It now has a radius that is 3600 times smaller than it was at the beginning. The speed of the car is now lower than we can measure with our apparatus, so we mistakenly conclude that the car is not moving at all.

Light will not be discussed at length in this article. Suffice to say, it is a series of waves that create moving low-density areas which are filled with nether at a rate caused by the nether pressure. Both the rate of filling the low-pressure area and the nether density are directly proportional to nether pressure. Inertia is directly proportional to density. This means that variations in nether density do NOT affect the speed of light.

The fact that nether must compress and thus increase in density as it moves toward a mass means that it has a fifth property. The fact that nether squeezes inward without resistance as it moves toward a mass means that it has a sixth property.

V.Nether is compressible.

VI.Nether has no "memory"."Memory" is a term used in engineering to describe materials that tend to go back to their original shape after they have been distorted.

Other Consequences of Gravity as an Inward Flow

These are listed here, but not fully explained. Full explanations are available but beyond the scope of this article.

Light is affected by gravity. Therefore, gravity lensing is a reality according to the same math used by Einstein, but for a different reason. The equation for the Schwartzschild radius for a black hole is more easily derived in nether theory (this is the radius below which light will not escape). The electron also has a Schwartzschild radius which has been computed and aids in understanding electron size. Nether gravity slows the passage of time according to the same equation derived by Einstein, but the equation is more easily derived and understood in nether theory than it is in relativity. Gravity appears to be instantaneous in certain instances because the inward flow is there all the time, and when the earth moves into a another part of the flow, gravity is there immediately - not so with light which is a series of waves.

The accelerating expansion of the universe is merely a logical consequence of nether theory with the nature of the big bang modified to be an explosion of nether. It is nether expanding after its sudden appearance at a point that creates the accelerating expansion. Modeling the dynamics of an explosion in empty space, the initial acceleration would have been very great and would be lessening with time even though the acceleration would continue to be present. The rate of acceleration varies between the perimeter of the universe (the perimeter of the nether) and its center, being greatest at the perimeter because there is less inertia to be overcome (nearer the center, there is more nether to be pushed outward). This means that "dark energy" is merely the expanding nether.

Magnetism is explained as a consequence of nether conserving energy and attempting to remain at the same pressure throughout. So nether has two additional known properties which may be listed as seven and eight.

VII. Nether prefers to conserve energy at all times.

VIII. Nether attempts to remain at the same pressure throughout, but does not succeed.

This is the reason that the expansion of the universe is accelerating as well as the reason for a number of other phenomena.

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The Nether Flow Constant

Suppose that we were to relate nether velocity with gravity, both as found at the earth's surface. The equation would be: Mv_{e}=Kg_{e}where "K" is a constant. If we solve this equation for the value of "K", we have what I call the nether flow constant for earth. Every mass has its own particular nether flow constant, so a nether flow constant for earth is like a planetary signature or a fingerprint.

At sea level on earth, we can give "M" a value of one and use it as a standard, allowing us to use a simpler equation: v_{e}=Kg_{e}. When we use "M" at sea level as a standard, "K" can be used at places above the earth's surface as well, but only to find "v" when "g" is known. With this in mind:1. v

_{e}= Kg_{e}v_{e}= distance/time g_{e}= distance/time^{2}

2. From dimensional analysis, K must be a measure of time.

3. v_{e}= (2r_{e}g_{e})^{1/2}This is our equation for nether velocity.

4. Kg_{e}= (2r_{e}g_{e})^{1/2}Equivalencies of v_{e}.

5. (Kg_{e})^{2}= 2r_{e}g_{e}Squared both sides of the equation.

6. K^{2}g_{e}^{2}= 2r_{e}g_{e}Removed the parentheses.

7. K^{2}= (2r_{e}/g_{e}) Divided both sides.

8. K = (2r_{e}/g_{e})^{1/2}From the square root of both sides.The values for the earth's radius at the poles has been used to solve for "K" because at any other point, there is centrifugal force from the earth's rotation, which causes "r

_{e}" to increase and "g_{e}" to decrease. At the poles, "r_{e}" is supposed to be 3,950.19 miles, and "g_{e}" is 32.2577759 feet/second^{2}. We found that "K" is almost equal to 256 pi multiplied by the square root of two. In fact, if the product of 256 pi and the square root of two is used to solve for the radius of the earth, re is 3,951.67 miles - which differs by only .0375% from the known "r_{e}" at the poles (3,950.19 miles). The metric system (or any other system of measure) could have been used with exactly the same result.

This apparent coincidence would not have made any impression on me except that the product of 256 and the square root of two is the frequency of an octave of F sharp in the musical scale of ancient China. This is the note upon which their musical and astrological scales were based - which causes me to wonder what they knew that we do not know.

If this is an example of one of their old codes, then pi would be a circle which might represent a planet and 256 (2)^{1/2}would be the literal depiction of the frequency. Such a "coincidence" could have been placed in their musical/astrological system deliberately just as were many others in China and other parts the world before recorded history. Or perhaps this is nothing more than coincidence.

For more information on old mathematical codes and ancient Chinese music, seeThe Oldest Magicby this author.

Computer Simulation

One of things I did in early 1999 was develop a spreadsheet simulation of gravity for my computer. It was a valuable tool for me to use in learning the nuances of gravity for any particular planet, sun, or moon, and the roles that each planetary mass and radius play. For those who wish to truly understand these things, the directions for creating the simulation are available.

Velocity, Acceleration, and Jerk

Velocity is relative in this universe. Once an object is moving or is stationary relative to the nether, the averages of the inflows into its atoms do not change appreciably. In space, without friction, a spaceship would simply coast along. However, acceleration is change. Change causes the inflows to be altered. This requires energy, so unless energy is forthcoming, acceleration does not happen.

Jerk is accelerating acceleration. In a sense, this happens when an object moves up or down in a gravity funnel. Acceleration increases when moving down to a higher gravity (acceleration) and decreases when moving upward to a lower gravity.

Standing in Place versus Free-Falling

When we are held in place by gravity, we feel its acceleration holding us down. The particular configuration of each vortex of our make-up has been adjusted to our place. If one were to jump off a cliff, one would accelerate at the same rate that the nether would accelerate, ignoring its velocity. This happens because one's own vortices of matter attempt to maintain the same configuration during the fall. It is only the acceleration of the nether that creates our movement downward.

Velocity is not change, and velocity is relative. Because momentum is the product of mass and velocity, momentum is also relative. Acceleration and jerk are not relative.

Einstein's Analogy and Nether Theory

Einstein once showed that gravity and acceleration would feel the same way if one were inside a closed box and had no outside references. From it, he deduced that gravity and acceleration were essentially the same, except that he postulated a curved space-time to create the acceleration we call gravity.

Actually, curved space-time has proven not to be the answer. In nether theory, we live in a Euclidian space (no curvature). Gravity is caused by nether acceleration downward, and is represented as an acceleration of one "g". Two examples are: (1) you are in a spaceship in space accelerating at one "g", and (2) you are standing on earth at sea level where gravity is one "g".

In regard to the first example, you could stand on the trailing wall of your spaceship with your head pointing in the direction in which the spaceship is accelerating. You could then perform gymnastics, jump rope, or do push-ups, with the same feel and effect that would be the case if you were standing on earth as you are in the second example. So the examples are much alike. Why? In the first example,youare accelerating through thenetherand that is the same relatively as thenetheraccelerating throughyou. In the second example, Gravity isthe nether accelerating through you.

If we were to jump off a cliff and fall, we would accelerate at the same rate that the nether accelerates. We are made of nether that is moving into many small vortices. When we are "at rest" or moving at a constant velocity in the same direction, our vortices are oriented and structured for the speed and direction of our travel - or the speed and direction of relative nether flow through us. But when there is acceleration, our vortices must be rearranged. Rearrangement requires energy and nether is "energy-conscious". So the vortices prefer to remain in a condition where nether moves through us at the same velocity and in the same direction all the time. By accelerating at the same rate as the nether, the vortices prevent excessive rearrangement. So when we jump off a cliff, weaccelerateat the same rate as the nether moving through us - as opposed to falling at thevelocityof the surrounding nether. We call this "free-fall".

Nether Theory Consequences

(1) Our universe is an expanse of nether surrounded by emptiness.

(2) Nether density varies from place to place.

(3) Nether becomes more dense as it approaches a mass.

(4) Nether is constantly in motion.

(5) Nether is filled with energy.

(6) Once the velocity of nether (or lack thereof) is set, it cannot be detected by normal means.

(7) Nether can be detected by its acceleration or the acceleration of any vortices (matter) within it.

(8) All energy is the consequence of motion within nether.

(9) All energy is transmitted by means of motion within nether.

More and Less Gravity

Gravity is the sum of the inflows of all of the subatomic entities composing the mass that is creating a gravity funnel. Think of a jar of marbles representing the subatomic entities. In each marble is a tiny subatomic entity. Each marble has a surface area that can represent a spherical cross-section of inflow. The sum of the surface areas of all of the marbles would constitute a large total area of nether inflow. A sphere closely surrounding all of the marbles in the jar would not have the equivalent surface area as the sum of all the surface areas of the marbles. In fact, it would be much less. This would cause a higher velocity of nether inflow through the enclosing sphere than would be the case through each of the marble surfaces.

The more marbles that we place together, the greater the difference between the area of the enclosing sphere and the sum of the surfaces of the marbles - even if the size of the enclosing sphere increases. This is what happens when more subatomic vortices are placed together. So a celestial body composed of more matter packed with equivalent density will have a have a higher inward nether velocity than one with less matter. Increasing the density of the matter in a celestial body would also increase the nether inflow. Upon examining the gravity equation, g = v^{2}/2r, we see that reducing the radius increases gravity which is also a form of density increase.

The micro-gravity of a subatomic entity is a very small force when compared to the other forces listed in contemporary physics. However, when many subatomic entities are grouped together as is the case with a body such as a sun, planet, or moon, the other forces cancel one another due to the "random" arrangement of the tiny entities that create them. Only the force we call gravity is a unification of small forces. The other small forces do not unify. Instead, they cancel one another for an average magnitude of zero. Gravity is both the smallest of forces and the largest of forces. When it is great enough to create an inflow that exceeds the speed of light, light cannot escape and we say that there is a "black hole". This may be likened to a swimmer with a speed of 3 miles per hour attempting to swim upstream in a river against a current that has a speed of 5 miles per hour.

Disappearance of Nether

The question has been asked, "Won't all of the nether flow out through the vortices?" Probably not. The nether becomes less dense all the time. This does not affect the speed of light, but the accelerated expansion of the universe does place galaxies farther apart and with greater velocities of separation, until someday light may not be able to reach us from other galaxies. The lessening of nether density happens much more quickly because of the expansion than because of the tiny amount that is caused by inflow into matter.

Brief Summary of Gravity Theory

1. Everything in the universe is composed of a fluid under pressure.

2. Subatomic entities are vortices or combinations of vortices of this fluid.

3. Every subatomic entity has a relative vacuum at its center.

4. Fluid pressure pushes the fluid into every subatomic entity.

5. Every concentration of subatomic entities forms a gravity funnel.

6. In a gravity funnel, the fluid accelerates and concentrates to become more dense.

7. The end result is gravity which creates the ISL and conforms to the MEL.

Why the Universe Exists

It appears that we live in a three-dimensional universe composed of a fluid. This universe moves along a fourth dimension we call "time". The movement along the fourth dimension allows movement to occur within the universe - and we measure "time" with this movement. The rotation of the earth is a day, the month was originally from full moon to full moon, the earth revolves about the sun in one year, etc.

Velocity is relative within the fluid universe and lack of velocity is merely a special case of velocity. From the viewpoint of nether, once established, velocity does not change and does not require energy to maintain. Acceleration is change and jerk is a rate of change. These require energy.

The source of all the energy that ever was, is now, or ever will be, is the imbalance that is the pressure difference between the fluid of the universe and the relative nothingness at the core of every subatomic vortex. We call the most visible expression of this imbalance gravity. At least one of the old religions (philosophies) attributed all energy to the "no-thing" at the core of every tiny vortex. This was the ancient concept of "the Eternal" that is the cause of all, and it appears to be another way to express the cause of the imbalance. There is a quote from Kabbalah which appears to relate to gravity:

It is a descending stream of pure activity which is the dynamic force of the universe.

Bibliography & Recommended Reading:

The material presented in this article comes from what is common knowledge in physics and my own work. Examples that cover some of the material follow.

1.Fundamentals of Physics Extendedby David Halliday, Robert Resnick, and Jearl Walker, Fifth Edition, 1997 by John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

2.Handbook of Engineering Fundamentalsunder editorship of Ovid W. Eshbach, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952.

3.The New Physicsedited by Paul Davies, Cambridge University Press, 1989.

4.A Source Book in Physicsby William Francis Magie, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1935.

5.Astronomyedited by Samuel Rapport and Helen Wright, New York University Press, 1964.

6.Principles of Electricity Applied to Telephone and Telegraph Work, 1961 Edition, American Telephone and Telegraph Co.

7.Quantum Mechanics and Experience, David Z. Albert, Harvard University Press, 1992.

8.Behind Light's Illusionby Lew Paxton Price (self published), 1999 - 2001.

9. Most of Volume 7, Issues 38 and 39, 2001,Infinite Energy.Any good encyclopedia set - sometimes the older ones are better for this purpose than the newer ones.

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