### THE HISTORY OF NETHER GRAVITY THEORY A HISTORIA DA TEORIA DA GRAVIDADE DE NETHER (Portuguese Translation by Marcelo Moreira Jr.) Click on Artigos.

Added to this website on November 7, 2005.
Copyright (C) 1999, 2001, 2005 by Lew Paxton Price
##### MAIN MENU Part Two - Part Three - Part Four - Part Five Part Six - Part Seven - Part Eight

The Beginning

The nether theory of gravity was not something that suddenly occurred like a flash of lightning complete with all of the math involved.   Instead, it was an evolution in thought that occurred gradually when I had time to think about it.   This part of the website is being created for two reasons:   (1) to show the evolution of thought for historical reasons, and (2) to take the reader through this evolution in hopes that it will increase his or her understanding of gravity.

The concept of the electron as a vortex came very quickly in May of 1965.   This quickly was followed by the early concept of gravity as an inflow into matter.   At that time, I was fairly certain that the ether

(1) is dynamic in character,

(2) is a perfect non-particulate fluid,

(3) can flow like water or air,

(4) has inertia (or it could not form a vortex)

(5) would accelerate as it approached a large mass in space, and

(6) was the only constituent of all matter.

The above was confirmed for me when a short time later it became apparent that time dilation was a mandatory consequence of the existence of ether as a medium for light.

The Maturing Theory

These conclusions were followed later by the reasoning for the mathematics of gravity.   The early reasoning was published in 1999 in the first edition of Book Two - Gravity of the series Behind Light's Illusion.   In this series, the dynamic ether was given the name nether for the reasons explained elsewhere on this site.   Prior to the writing of the gravity book, I had spent over a month of sixteen hour days, seven days a week, studying various alternative solutions to gravity, and had arrived at the conclusion that the only viable explanation for gravity is the one published as part of nether theory.   Chapter one of Book Two, the first edition, follows with a few corrections for typographical errors and some further explanation where it is needed.

Part Two

### ONE THE INWARD NETHER FLOW

##### It is sure to be dark if you shut your eyes.                                                                 Tupper

The nether is a perfect non-particulate fluid.   It has inertia, so it has a mass of its own.   When nether mass is mentioned in this series, in will be known in equations as a capital "M" rather than the usual small "m", and as a word, it will be "Mass" with a capital "M" rather than "mass" with a small "m".   Nether is the primal substance of which all is created, so it should have a capital "M" to denote its presence.

Nether can have varying density which is proportional to its pressure.   In a gravity funnel, it can seem to be more compressed in two dimensions than in the third.   This is not actually what happens because the pressure transfers to the third dimension very quickly.   This apparent effect is possible because analyzing it requires two or more steps and nether is always in motion.   If it were not always in motion, our universe would cease to exist.

Motion means that nether is always becoming.   It is always changing.   It is this changing, this motion, that affects us.   Velocity, in our space, is relative in the sense that it is perceived as nothing at all.   Once something has a velocity (state of uniform motion in Newton's terms), it continues with that same velocity until a force causes it to accelerate (change its velocity).

Acceleration is the same as deceleration, but in the opposite direction.   Since both are forms of acceleration, they will both be called acceleration.   In other words, if you are standing by a railroad track and a train goes by at 30 miles per hour heading west with your brother in it, you see his face in the window passing you at 30 mph going westward.   But he sees you moving eastward at 30 mph.   If the train accelerates at the rate of 10 miles per hour per minute while it is passing, your brother sees you accelerating in the opposite direction at 10 miles per hour per minute.   You will feel nothing, but he will feel the acceleration.   If the train decelerates at the rate of 10 miles per hour per minute, your brother feels the acceleration but in the opposite direction.   So scientifically, deceleration is another form of acceleration.

Nether does not have a particulate structure.   It is the particles in a medium such as air or water that cause friction.   Nether is without friction, and once a velocity for a stream of nether is established, it will continue unchanged indefinitely until acted upon by an unbalanced force.   So velocity is essentially the same as being at rest as far as the nether is concerned.   Acceleration, on the other hand, can be detected and causes changes just as changes cause acceleration.

Einstein once showed that gravity and acceleration would feel the same if one were inside a closed box and had no outside references.   From this, he deduced that acceleration and gravity were essentially the same, except he postulated a curved space-time to create the acceleration we call gravity.

Actually, curved spacetime is not the answer.   Gravity is caused by nether acceleration downward.   Let us look at two examples: (1) you are in a spaceship in space accelerating at one "g" (one "g" is merely an abbreviated way to say the acceleration of one earth gravity), and (2) you are standing on earth at sea level where there is a force of gravity at one "g".

In the first example, you may stand up just as you would on earth by having your head point in the direction of travel and your feet on the the trailing wall.   Here, you could perform gymnastics, jump rope, or do push-ups, with the same feel and effect that would be the case if you on earth as you are in the second example.   So the two examples are very much alike.   Why?

In the first example, you are accelerating past the nether that is the same relatively as the nether accelerating past you.   In the second case, the nether is accelerating past you.   Gravity is nether accelerating past us.   If we were to jump off a high cliff and fall, we would accelerate at the same rate that the surrounding nether accelerates.   We are made of nether that is moving into many vorticles (the name I coined for vortices that have previously been regarded as particles).   When we are "at rest" or moving at a constant speed in the same direction, our vorticles are oriented and structured for the speed and direction of our travel.   But when there is acceleration, our vorticles must be rearranged.   Rearrangement requires energy, so the vorticles prefer to remain in a condition where the nether moves past at the same velocity all the time.   By accelerating at the same rate as the surrounding nether, the vorticles prevent rearrangement.   So when we jump off a cliff, we accelerate at the same rate as the nether around us, and call this condition "free fall".

Nether is accelerating as it moves past you in example two, because the earth is like a funnel for the nether.   Imagine a series of theoretical spheres with different radii and with a common center, at which is the earth.   These are spheres with varying radii from the surface of the earth to infinity.   The spheres "nest" within one another, all with a common center.   Sphere one is the surface of the earth.   Sphere two is the next outward sphere from sphere one, just slightly larger than the earth.   Sphere three is just slightly larger than sphere two.   Sphere four is just slightly larger than sphere three, and so on.   Nether moves through each spherical surface in its journey inward (downward).   The larger spheres have larger surface areas than the smaller spheres, just as the top of a kitchen funnel has a larger cross-section than does the bottom.   Nether flows through each spherical surface just as it would through a cross-section of a kitchen funnel.   So the surface of each sphere is like the cross-section of a funnel in which fluid is passing.

If you are actually using a funnel to pour liquid into a container, the liquid is passing through the upper part of the funnel at lower velocities, and passing through the lower part of the funnel at higher velocities.   In between the top and bottom of the funnel, the liquid is passing at intermediate velocities with the lowest velocity at the top and the highest at the bottom.   This happens because the funnel will not allow fluid to enter or exit at its sides, causing the amount of fluid passing each level of the funnel in one second to be exactly the same as the amount of fluid passing every other level of the funnel in one second.   The same effect is seen in a river.   When the river is wide and deep the current is slow.   When the river is narrow and shallow the current is swift.

The fluid near the "top" of a gravity funnel is like that at the top of any other funnel.   The nether flows into it at the top, at a very small fraction of the inward velocity that is later achieved at the bottom.   However, the gravity funnel, due to its unique construction, has no sides.   Without sides all of the nether flows together, accelerating uniformly at each level (each spherical cross-section).   For nether moving through any particular sphere there is no inclination for one portion of nether to move more quickly or more slowly than any other portion.   Since all portions move together, the nether compresses in the two tangential dimensions and extends inward in the radial dimension, while increasing constantly in velocity.

The result is acceleration obeying the inverse square law that we know as the a law of gravity.   Because everything is made of nether, everything actually is nether that accelerates.   So the acceleration causes free objects to fall and holds down objects which are are unable to fall.   This is analogous to water draining from a bathtub.   The drain is the vacuum pulling in the nether, the water pressure is the nether pressure, and the whirlpool is a vorticle of which all things are made, and which causes anything floating to be accelerated toward the drain along with the rest of the water.

The nether may be compressed, but it prefers to remain uncompressed.   Actually, it is compressed all the time and is expanding, which is why the universe expands.   When the geometry of a very strong electromagnet causes enough nether to be compressed inside it, the magnet explodes.

Nether will decompress rapidly as the foregoing explosion of a magnet illustrates, and also decompresses radially as the pressure difference draws it inward toward the center of a gravity funnel.

Nether will continue to do whatever it is doing until a force causes it to change (accelerate).   This continuance is called inertia, and is what causes a vortex to exist.   The relative vacuum at the center of a vortex draws nether inward, but because of inertia, nether cannot turn ninety degrees without adopting a curved path, and since nether is subject to centrifugal force (a special case of inertia), the vortex forms and we have a vorticle.

There are many vorticles in the universe, but they are widely separated with only nether between them.   Therefore, it takes a long time for the water to run out of the bathtub.   The nether was highly compressed at the time of the Big Bang which started the universe (although in nether theory the Big Bang is somewhat different to that theorized by contemporary physicists), and the inertia of the nether overall has prevented expansion from accelerating any more rapidly than it does now, for this point in time.   However, as the outward portion of nether reaches a higher velocity, the inward expansion moves more quickly, so that as time passes, the expansion rate increases.   Even so, it takes a long time for nether pressure to be reduced sufficiently for the laws of the universe to be greatly altered (assuming that they ever will be altered).   The span of the earth's existence is short cosmologically speaking.

In the submicroscopic world of the vorticle, nether flows inward in a spiral, and there is a substantial tangential vector to this flow.   But in the macroscopic world of a planet, the tangential vectors (of the many vorticles that form the planet) average out, so that the inward flow that we call gravity has an almost negligible tangential vector, and the flow is inward radially.   The gravity found in the following pages is the gravity of the macrocosm, the gravity of suns, planets, moons, and black holes.   At the submicroscopic level, gravity becomes something entirely different, and divides into what we call the strong force, the weak force, static charge, and in a special case, electromagnetic radiation or light.   But call it what you will, as described in Kabballah, gravity is still the descending stream of pure activity which is the dynamic force of the universe.

Part Three
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The Maturing Theory Translated into Math

The second chapter of the first edition of Book Two is the major source of the following.   Dimensional analysis is sometimes used.   Do not be intimidated by its name.   It merely describes the use of units of measure to analyze equations and was explained in detail in Book One.

Terms Used
A - Area of a sphere (cross-section of a gravity funnel)
a - acceleration
a - as a subscript refers to a particular sphere
ave - a subscript meaning "average"
d - distance
E - Energy
e - subscript for earth's surface
EK - Kinetic Energy
EP - Potential Energy
exp - exponent
F - Force
g - gravity
H - Height
i - subscript meaning "impact"
K - nether flow constant
k - any constant in any equation
M - Mass (nether's primal Mass which includes its density)
m - mass (mass as is currently known)
P - Pressure of nether
pi - ratio between the circumference and
the diameter of a circle, having an infinite
number of digits to the right of the decimal,
it is best to show at least nine of them,
3.141592654, for sufficient accuracy in these
calculations.
sphere "a" - a theoretical sphere above the earth's surface
sphere "e" - the sphere that is the earth's surface
sphere "h" - a theoretical sphere above sphere "s"
sphere "s" - a theoretical sphere above sphere "a"
T - when used as a subscript, it means total
t - time
v - velocity
w - momentum which is Mv
1/2 - when used as a subscript, the square root

Method

When first working with gravity, the later, more sophisticated derivations for gravity equations were not known, and the equations needed were found from virtually nothing but pure reason.   However, the reasoning was sufficient to find the correct answers.

F = ma     This is the usual equation for force.

The force for nether flowing inward is pressure between what appears to be nothing.   So,   F = P   for pressure.   It is true that pressure usually has units of area, so let us assume that the area is one since we have no other means of equating "F" and "P".

The symbol "m" for mass, in the case of nether is "M".
Gravity is acceleration, so "a" is "g".
Therefore, the letters for   F = ma   are changed and the equation becomes

P = Mg

a = g = d/t2     This is the definition for acceleration.

So:   P = M(d/t2)     By substitution.

E = Fd     This is the standard equation for energy which is force multiplied by distance.   For this work,

E = Pd = M(d/t2)(d)

Using to the dimensions involved and simplifying

E = M(d/t2)(d) = M(d2/t2) = M(d/t)2

d/t = v       So:   E = M(d/t)2 = Mv2

This means:   E = Pd = Mgd = M(d/t2)d = M(d2/t2) = Mv2

So far, we have been looking at the dimensions only, and not the actual values.   So we must add "k" to one side.

Mgd = M(kv)2

Removing the M of each side leaves   gd = (kv)2.

"k" is needed because only the dimensions have been used so far and quantity can be represented by "k".   The first significant equation is equation one.

Equation 1:   gd = (kv)2

When an object is dropped from a point either at or just above the earth's surface, and it falls for exactly one second, "d", the distance it falls in that second, is always equal quantity-wise (but not dimensionally) to "g/2".   This is simply due to average velocity being (0+gt)/2, and "vt" being distance.   So in this case, equation one becomes

g(g/2) = (kv)2   or   g2/2 = (kv)2

Because "k" is not yet known, for convenience we can call it one (1) and the equation becomes

g2/2 = v2   or   g/21/2 = v

Because the square root of two is merely a number, it can be incorporated into "k" and we can place "k" back into the equation where it is most convenient.

Equation 2:   v = kg

This is the same as   v/k = g,   which implies that k has the dimension "t" of time.   This makes sense because   v = d/t   and   g = d/t2.   If dimensionally   k = t,   then   v/k = d/t/t   or   d/t2.   "g" also equals d/t2, so dimensional analysis confirms that "k" is time.

However, "v/k = g" is cumbersome and "v" will always be greater than "g".   So   v = kg   is a more convenient way of expressing the equation.

As we think of nether flowing inward, we can consider it to be analogous to a wind blowing past us.   Most wind is measured by its velocity.   However, this wind is constantly accelerating toward the planetary center.   In reality, it has no velocity because true velocity is measured as a constant distance per time even though the distance per time may be only constant for a very short time.   Inflow of nether in a gravity funnel is never constant even when measured at a point.   It is always accelerating.   It is constant in its total mass flow per time as it passes through consecutive theoretical spheres about the center of the attracting body.   Were the nether not accelerating, we would not have gravity because it is acceleration rather than velocity that we can feel.

If you were in a spaceship moving through the nether at a constant velocity, you would continue to move in the same direction and at the same velocity until a force acted upon you.   In other words, you and your spaceship have inertia and nether is frictionless, so you can coast along indefinitely.   In a spaceship coasting along, you would not feel the effects of gravity.   Nor would you feel any other form of acceleration.

The situation changes when acceleration is applied.   We feel acceleration because acceleration means that the configurations of the vortices of which we and the spaceship are composed are altered by acceleration - and at a constant velocity, there is no alteration.

Resistance to this alteration is inertia.   Inertia is the tendency of something to resist change.   Resistance to change is very logical because the resistance is not an active force, but a passive force.   A body in motion will remain in motion in the same direction with the same velocity unless something makes it change. Why should it be otherwise?   Why should anything change unless it is caused to change?

Part Four
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Working with nether makes the word "field" inappropriate, so instead of "gravitational field" I am going to call the inflowing nether around a planet, sun, moon, asteroid, black hole, or whatever, a "gravity well" or "gravity funnel".

The nether passing by us in our "gravity funnel" is very similar in effect to us passing through nether in space outside the major effects of a gravity funnel.   If we were accelerating through the nether in a spaceship at an acceleration of one "g", we would feel the same effect that we feel here on earth as the nether passes through us at an acceleration of one "g".

Once again, I wish to make it clear that if we postulate a theoretical sphere, larger than the earth, with the center of the earth coincident with the center of this sphere, and if we give the spherical surface the quality of a thickness so fine that it is like the surface when the water in a pond meets the air above it, we will still have difficulty in finding a velocity for the nether which passes through this sphere.   Why?   Because there is no velocity as such.   Instead, there is only acceleration which varies with the radius of the sphere.   [There are ways to obtain a theoretical velocity, and those which can be found algebraically will be used later on, but the point I wish to make is that actual velocity does not exist here.]

To have a true velocity, we must have a distance along which nether passes with no acceleration.   But in a gravity funnel there is always acceleration, and even that changes with distance from the center of the attracting mass.

There is an analogy in plane geometry the helps one to see this point.   If we have a circle next to a straight line and wish to see the angle that a length of the circle makes with the straight line, we find that the there is no straight line that is part of the circle.   So we make a line that is tangent to the circle at a point.   We do this by extending the point to make the second line perpendicular to the radius of the circle that touches the point.   Now we can measure the angle between the two straight lines.   However, there is no actual angle between the circle and the first line.

When working with any theoretical sphere through which nether moves to enter the vortices of our planet, we must choose a point in that sphere and "extend" the point so that we can work with a velocity that actually does not exist as a true velocity.

When we look for a value for "v" for the nether that is passing through any particular sphere and down into the earth, both "g" an "Mv" might be determined by 1/r2.   In this case, velocity is merely a way to show the amount of nether passing through the sphere, and "Mass" is the amount of nether which has that velocity.   So what we really have is "M/t", which is Mass of nether per second.   This is what is proportional to 1/r2, and for MvA to always be the same from one sphere to another, we must have a term that allows the dimensions of MvA (as regards dimensional analysis) to equal one.   "A" means the area of each sphere, and it varies from one sphere to the next.

Mv = M(d/t)   which is proportional to 1/r2

"A"   is proportional to r2         Therefore

MvA is proportional to (1/r2)r2 which is one.

Every gravity well is a funnel for nether.   Every gravity well must be composed of numerous vorticles, but such a gravity well may be very small even though it is composed of numerous vorticles.   The gravity well is not shaped like the funnels we have known, but the function is the same.   For example, the surface of our earth is the bottom of the funnel, infinity is the top, and the funnel has no sides.   For purposes of calculation, the bottom of the funnel is the center of the earth.   But in reality, nether begins to move into vorticles as soon as it arrives at the outer edge of our atmosphere.

Our funnel cross-sections are spheres at or above the planetary surface.   The cross-sectional areas vary according to the areas of the spheres.   When passing into our funnel, nether has three choices.   It can either accelerate, compress, or do both.   Since there is no way out of the funnel except through the bottom, the same Mass of nether per second must pass through each funnel cross-section (sphere).   This is why MvA must be the same for all of the spherical cross-sections for any particular body (such as earth).

As mentioned before, "Mv" and gravity must be proportional to 1/r2   -   "Mv" due to each theoretical sphere acting as the cross-section of a funnel through with nether flows, and gravity because "v" must be accelerated in this funnel.   It may be noted that this is merely a means of stating verbally the inverse square law for gravity.

In the paragraphs that follow, nether is considered to be flowing from outside the earth into the earth as if there were an infinite number of spherical funnel cross-sections above the earth.   The spherical surfaces are treated as cross-sections of a funnel.   So we have, in essence, a spherical "funnel" as nether flows toward the center of the earth.   The total Mass, Mt, passing through each sphere in one second is always the same.   So at any point in the spherical surface, Mass flow per second multiplied by the area of the sphere will always be the same.

If nether acted in the same manner as a gas, we would expect its density to vary due to pressure farther from the earth being greater than pressure nearer the earth.   In the case of nether, the pressure variations move at the speed of light, and this means that the nether should react so quickly to them than pressure need not be a major consideration.   However, the word "should" is misleading.   From the preceding argument, it would seem that nether density would be almost uniform throughout its expanse.

Momentum at one point in a spherical cross-section is "Mv".   The total momentum of for nether at each spherical cross-section is "MvA".   The total Mass that passes through each cross-section is "MA" where "M" is actually nether Mass which may vary in density, and "A" is proportional to r2.   "v" may vary in accordance with the dictates of "M" and "A".

The total kinetic energy of the nether passing through the surface of a theoretical sphere that is the higher of two such spheres, will be greater than the total energy of the nether passing through the lower of the spheres.   Total energy grows as the nether approaches the planetary surface.   But the total momentum of the nether passing through the surface of any one of the theoretical spheres will be the same as the total momentum of the nether passing through the surface of any of the other theoretical spheres - if nether Mass is neither created or destroyed during its fall.   So total momentum, in this case, is conserved, remaining constant while total kinetic energy grows.

If "A" is proportional to r2, then "Mv" must be proportional to 1/r2.   So, due to the formula for the area of sphere which is (4pi)r2, "A" may be said to vary according to a "square law" while "Mv" varies according to an "inverse square law" as does gravity.   "Mv" is nether momentum at one point on the surface of the sphere and it grows as nether approaches the planetary surface.

Total momentum, Wet = MeveAe
Total momentum, Wat = MavaAa

Wet = Wat

Equation 3:   MeveAe = MavaAa

Part Five
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Equation 2,   v = kg,   indicates the presence of a nether flow constant which we may call "K".   If we wish to discover this constant, we must examine very carefully everything we believe that we know about nether and the constant.   One of the most critical things we should examine is the nature of the nether flow into a body.

Distance is simply distance and implies no motion. Distance divided by time is velocity and implies motion that is "uniform" or constant.   In this universe, velocity has very little influence on anything.   Once an object in space reaches a certain velocity after being accelerated, nothing further changes.   We can say that nether is passing the object rather than that the object is passing the nether because velocity is relative.

Velocity divided by time is acceleration.   The nether is a frictionless fluid that responds only to acceleration.   For this reason, nether with a constant velocity as a component, has no effect that we can notice.   It is the change in energy, the acceleration in space near a mass, that we perceive as gravity.   But the nether in this space has one more surprise.   The acceleration we call gravity changes.   Velocity is the change of position with time.   Acceleration is the change of velocity with time.   In the space near a body, gravity changes with the dictates of the inverse square of the distance from the body's center.   In other words, there are lots of changes.

We can list the things we know about nether and nether flow.

1.   The nether flow constant, "K", must be a true constant because our reasoning in finding the equation   v = kg   shows that this must be so.   But since equation 3 indicates that "Mv" must conform to the same inverse square law as "g", then   Mv = Kg   might be more appropriate.   Still, "K" must be a constant in any particular gravity funnel.

2.   "K" might be the result of the equation actually being   Mv = Kg.   The only reason we are not using "M" in the equation at this time is that "M" should be almost the same throughout (see the above argument).

3.   "K" must be influenced by the radius of the sphere where we find the value for "g".   This is true because a shorter radius causes a faster change in "v" or "g" than does a longer radius.

4.   "K" must have a time dimension, so we can say that in our system of measurement, "K" will be seconds of time.

5.   Nether is moving as an acceleration rather a velocity which makes it necessary to examine it at points where we "stop" the acceleration and "extend" the points.

6.   The speed of light is the reaction speed of nether and is probably much faster than the inward flow of nether, which means that the density of the Mass of the nether, "M", is likely to be the same throughout the gravity funnel.   If we say   M = 1,   then we need not consider it further in our calculations, so we can try this first.   However, it may not be true.

7.   It is the acceleration of the nether that we think of as gravity and that is actually   v/t/t.   So, in a sense, it is the change in velocity with distance that causes the gravitational effect.

8.   The equation for "K" must be such that "v" and "g" are a maximum at the theoretical center of a body, and approach zero as the distance from the center increases.

9.   We measure gravity with what we call "material" objects.   Mv = Kg   implies that "g", exerted upon an object at rest, is caused by the inertia of the nether.   The nether enters an object in the gravitational field and resists the difference in nether velocity from the top of the object to the bottom.   This is because we are speaking of   v/t,   every object is composed of vorticles which are in motion, and "v" must exceed "g".

Part Six
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Now let us look at potential energy.   When we drop an object in our gravity, it accelerates until it hits the ground (or the floor or whatever).   Before it is dropped, it has potential energy, EP.

EP = HF

"H" is height between the theoretical sphere where it was before it was dropped to the theoretical where it was stopped.   "F" is force which we call "pounds" and is the product of "g" and "m".   If   m = 1,   then force is "g", and we can say temporarily that   EP = Hg.

We must use a theoretical center for earth in our calculations, which is a point at which all the mass of the earth is concentrated.   We must choose levels of potential energy which are the surfaces of the theoretical spheres.   If we have a theoretical sphere which has a surface that is located a very short distance from a point that is the center of the attracting mass, the gravity and the nether velocity will be almost at their maximums.   If the center is the place where a dropped object is to stop, then "H" is the radius of this tiny sphere.

"g" is incredibly strong at this sphere and more than makes up for the tiny radius, "r".   We can say that   EP = rg.   This is the highest level of potential energy when speaking of an object that may be dropped for a short distance.   When making this calculation, we must "extend" a point in the spherical surface so that "g" remains constant during the object's fall.   Actually, "g" would be changing rapidly.

Looking at a point many millions or even billions of miles from the planetary center, we still have a level of potential energy that is equal to "rg", but "r" is very great and "g" is very small.   "r" can actually approach infinity and "g" can actually approach zero.   At very long distances from the center, potential energy is very small when speaking of an object that may be dropped for only a short distance, because "r" increases directly and "g" decreases as an inverse square.

When looking at potential energy at any point, we see that an object could fall from this point and arrive at the center.   The object would fall in time "ti" and arrive at the center with an impact velocity of "vi".   The equations for impact velocity and time follow, based upon a constant "g" force even though we know that "g" increases as an object approaches the center of the earth.

Equation 4:   gti = vi

The kinetic energy on impact is EK.

EK = (1/2)Mvi2

We know that the kinetic energy on impact is the same as the potential energy expended, so

EK = EP

(1/2)Mvi2 = rMg

We can divide both sides of the equation by M.

(1/2)vi2 = rg     or

vi2 = 2rg     taking the square root of each side:

Equation 5:   vi = (2rg)1/2

Equation 4 is gti = vi     substituting into equation 5:

gti = (2rg)1/2     dividing each side by g:

ti = (2rg)1/2/g

Squaring both sides:

ti2 = 2rg/g2     which is:

ti2 = 2r/g

So:

Equation 6:   ti = (2r/g)1/2

Now it appears that these equations are valid only when we think of a point, found on the surface of a theoretical spherical cross-section, which point is extended along a radius as an object falls.   The sphere is a valid energy level which can only be perceived properly as such by extending the point.

From the sphere to the center of the earth is the full distance that the theoretical potential energy can be exerted.   This is a theoretical distance because we must hypothesize that the mass of the earth is concentrated at a point at the center, and that "g" remains the force of acceleration unchanged as the object falls.   With the radius of the earth, "re", and gravity at the earth's surface, "ge", defining the potential energy level for the sphere, we have the highest possible energy level that this level can exert with a constant "g".   This is because the radius is the limit that any object (or the nether itself) can fall.   So we know that the energy of the nether at the sphere is probably fueled by a theoretical nether velocity that is no larger than the impact velocity.

If we use the surface of the earth, equation 5 becomes:

Equation 7:   vei = (2rege)1/2

To solve equation 7, we may use a value for "ge" of 32.25777559 feet per second squared, which is the value of gravity at the poles of the earth and is therefore not distorted by centrifugal force.   We may use a value for "re" of 3,950.19 miles multiplied by 5,280, which gives us the radius of earth at the poles in feet.   These inputs provide us with a "vei" of 36,682.4352 feet per second.

At this point, my intuition told me that the vei above is ve, the velocity of falling nether at the surface of the earth.   However, intuition is not always correct.

My intuition was based upon the fact that potential energy is equal to kinetic energy.

EP = EK
(MA)gere = (1/2)(MA)ve2
gere = (1/2)ve2
2gere = ve2
(2gere)1/2 = ve

All variables (g, r, and v) were used for the surface of the earth.   The reason the surface r was used had to do with the fact that M, A, g, and v are all affected by the curvature of the earth that only r at the surface can provide.   The answer that I found for v turned out to be the escape velocity which led me to the next proof for gravity.

Part Seven
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To test various alternatives, I set up a computer spreadsheet to simulate various solutions to gravity.   The spreadsheet was based upon the following assumptions.

1.   Gravity is caused by the acceleration of nether downward.

2.   A falling object accelerates with the nether acceleration, no more and no less.

3.   The surface of the earth and three theoretical spheres would be used: sphere "e" for the earth's surface, sphere "a" just above the the earth's surface, sphere "s" high above sphere "a", and sphere "h" just above sphere "s".

4.   The distances between two sets of adjacent spheres allows a means of calculating acceleration at two different levels.

Other assumptions were based upon the following.

Between the two adjacent spheres, "e" and "a", and using equation 4:

gete = vei         gata = vai

The foregoing equations can be re-written:

ge = vei/te         ga = vai/ta

From equation 2,   v = kg,   we have   g = v/k.   So:

ge = ve/K         ga = va/K

From these two sets of equations:

ge = ve/K = vei/te         ga = va/K = vai/ta

With some algebraic manipulation, we have:

Equation 8:   K = vete/vei       or       K = vata/vai

The above alternatives for "K" are not equal, and since that is so, "K" is not a constant unless we have more evidence than the above.   So appears that we must introduce Mass into the equations and that Mass is different at different spheres above the center of an attracting celestial body.

From equation 6,   ti = (2r/g)1/2,   we have:

te = (2re/ge)1/2       and       ta = (2ra/ga)1/2

If we temporarily assume that in equation 6,   K = te,   then we can solve for "te" which would be "K".   Using the same values for "ge" and "re as before:

K = 1,137.16567 seconds

Using this logic, "K" is a time dimension based upon "g" and "r".   If "K" is actually the same as "te", then it should change to "ta" when we are using other spheres or to "t" for impact velocity when using another celestial body.

When using the spreadsheet, the number of unknowns still exceeded the knowns in the equations.   By properly arranging the spreadsheet, I was able to set values and adjust the unknowns, one at a time, until I found the way to make them fit correctly together.   There was only one way that they would fit and this led to the correct equations and the correct values.

The value for "ve" turned out to be the same one that was found above.   Not long afterward, I realized that it is the escape velocity from the earth.   This led to the more sophisticated proofs published in Book Six and then the second edition of Book Two of Behind Light's Illusion.

Part Eight
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The other things that were initially discovered and published in the first edition of Book Two are worth mentioning here and follow in sufficient detail to be understood.

Mass Density

Mass density of nether increases as it moves into a gravity funnel.   When using sea level on earth as a standard so the Mass is set to equal one at this level, the equation for Mass becomes:

M = Me(r/re)-X     or     M = Me(re/r)X

"M" is the Mass we are attempting to find, "r" is the radius at that point, and "X" is 1.5.   This means that as "r" increases, "M" decreases proportionally to 1/rX, or as "r" decreases, "M" increases proportionally to 1/rX.

MvA must remain constant at all levels for any particular body of vorticles.   "A", area, always decreases when moving inward as 1/r2.   We know from the equation that "v" increases when moving inward as 1/r1/2.   This means that "M" must increase when moving inward as 1/r3/2.

Because a gravity funnel decreases in cross-sectional area as move inward (the area of a sphere), we know that "M" would be forced to compress and increase in density as 1/r2.   This is what must be happening in the two dimensions of the areas of the cross-sections.   So nether is compressing in two dimensions.

For total "M" to increase as 1/r3/2, "M" must be decreasing in the radial dimension, as it moves inward, as 1/r-1/2 which is the same as r1/2.   This is logical since negative pressure at the center is the driving force.   The nether actually stretches (expands) in the radial direction in response to the negative pressure.

And this is why MvA remains the same at all levels from the center.   Marea   is responding as 1/r2 and Mradial   is responding as 1/r-1/2.   "A" is responding as r2.   Adding the exponents, we have r2/r2 [which is one] at all levels for MvA.

Taken in logical sequence, first the negative pressure at the center of a body of vorticles draws the nether inward (or it is pushed by the positive pressure if you prefer).   Second, the nether is being compressed as the funnel decreases in cross-sectional area.   This cannot cause very much resistance because the pressure vectors parallel to the area of each sphere act essentially at right angles to the inward negative pressure vector.   However, inertia causes resistance to the inward pressure because the nether is accelerating at all levels.   Third, the nether stretches radially as a result of the negative pressure and the inertia pulling it.   Fourth, the velocities inward respond as only they can, and stabilize.   And fifth, the instantaneous velocity inward, as it increases (which is what it does at all times), is what we know as gravity.

The compression of the nether tangentially as 1/r2 is the only response it can have.   The response of the nether to the inward and outward forces is equal between acceleration and stretching - and this is logical.   They are actually the same thing viewed from different perspectives.   It is the increase in expansion that creates the increase in velocity - or vice-versa.

The Meaning of K

The value of "Mv" for any point in the universe may be easily calculated from "g" at that point once a standard for "M" has been established.   Nether is compressible and varies in density according to the conditions where it is found.   No standard for nether density had been established previously, so "M" at sea level on earth was the standard established for this theory.   This standard is reflected in the mass flow constant, "K", used in the equation   Mv = Kg.

"Mv" is the momentum of nether at a point and may be easily found by the use of the above equation when "g" and that point is known.   However, the value of "M" or "v" is impossible to discover at that point as separate values unless more is known.

"K" is calculated to be 1137.165679 seconds using the equation   K = (2re/ge)1/2   with the values for "re" and "ge" at the earth's poles, and "M" set as "one" for sea level on earth.

Variations on K

There are a number of ways to manipulate the equations to arrive at different ways to calculate "K".

K = te = (2re/ge)1/2

K = 2re/ve

K = ve/ge = reMeve/reMege = rewe/Ee

K = (21/2)(256pi)       This is approximate.

Coincidence?

There are 2pi radians in a circle.   So 2pi constitutes the fundamental time unit for one wavelength to occur if we are speaking of vibration.   The fact that "K" appears to signify that a vibration is evident leads us to believe the K = (21/2)(256pi) may be caused by a natural phenomenon.

I would never have noticed that "K" could be anything but a number except that I recognized that it appeared to be the same as pi multiplied by the frequency of an octave of the F sharp of ancient China.   This was the frequency upon which their entire musical and astrological scale was based.   Furthermore, their entire civilization was based upon their music and astrology.   So F sharp might be called their fundamental for living (see The Oldest Magic by this author).   This "K" is so close to the oriental frequency that an earth radius of 3,951.67 as opposed to 3,950.19 miles would make it precise.   This means that there is a difference of only .0375 percent.   And who knows what elevation the ancient Chinese considered to be their standard?   We use sea level, but did they?   If they did choose to use sea level as a standard, what was the sea level at that time?   What latitude might they have used since the elevation that is sea level increases as it is measured closer to the equator?

As far as the universe is concerned, our "K" can only apply to this planet.   If any frequency is involved, it is found only here on the planetary surface.   Our "K" can be considered the signature of Earth.

Two Velocities That Are One

It is interesting that "v" always equals the impact velocity of an object falling distance "r" at a constant acceleration of "g" as found at the distance "r" from the center of an attracting mass.   The reason is found in Book Six rather than the first edition of Book Two because the reason eluded me at first.   vi = vn = (2rg)1/2   where "vi" is impact velocity and "vn" is nether velocity.   The complete explanation is rather long, but it might be said that a "lucky" accident occurred.

Mordehai Milgrom and MOND

MOND stands for Modified Newtonian Dynamics.   It is the result of work by Mordehai Milgrom.

After working with gravity to develop the foregoing, I was lucky enough to be able to read an article on Mordehai Milgrom and his work on dark matter theory.   He had developed the necessary math for me to use to discover the dark matter solution.   Mordehai Milgrom did his work well before the expansion of the universe was known to be accelerating.   Consequently, he decided that the acceleration attributed to dark matter was actually caused by a change in Newton's second law.

My work, when mated with his, showed that the effects of the acceleration of the expansion of the universe are masked by gravity until gravity becomes weak enough to allow the acceleration to be detected.   Therefore, dark matter does not exist and Newton's second law remains intact.   The effect attributed to dark matter is simply that caused by the acceleration of the expansion of the universe - and should have been predicted when this acceleration was known to be a fact.   So actually, Mordehai Milgrom was the first to discover that the expansion of the universe is accelerating - but at that time he could not have realized that he had done so.   His work is remarkable for its time and the result of a great man with the courage of conviction.

Nether Inward Velocity Derived from Orbital Velocity

The inward velocity of nether at the orbital distance of any object toward an "attracting" object can be found from its orbital velocity.   This was something I discovered later on and serves to simplify what would otherwise be a lot of tedious calculating.   For instance, knowing the orbital velocity of the earth relative to the sun will allow one to discover the sunward velocity vector of the nether at the distance where the earth is orbiting the sun.

For the complete explanation see Gravity Equations.