(Theory of Magnetism)
TEORIA DO MAGNETISMO
(Portuguese Translation by Marcelo Moreira Jr.)
Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003
by Lew Paxton Price and Herbert Martin Gibson
Everything is dual; everything has poles;
everything has its pair of opposites;
like and unlike are the same;
opposites are identical in nature, but different in degree;
extremes meet; all truths are but half-truths;
all paradoxes may be reconciled.
Back - Main MenuThe Vortex Mouth
The electron has the distinctive qualities of a vortex (see Spin and The Vortex). Every vortex has a "mouth" which "sucks" in the medium of which it is composed. Vortices such as the whirlwind or the tornado pull in various forms of matter along with the air of which they are composed. Vortices such as the whirlpool pull in various forms of matter along with the water of which it is composed. The mouths of these vortices are pointed in a manner which forces them to either suck from below (the tornado), or from above (the whirlpool). But a vortex of dynamic ether has a mouth which can point in any direction.
Electron Mouth Orientation
When the electron mouth is pointed in any particular direction, it tries to move in that direction. This is evident when the electron is oriented by a magnetic field (see complete explanation in Book Three of Behind Light's Illusion). On the other hand, when the electron is forced to move in any particular direction, it orients itself so that its mouth is pointed in its direction of movement and a "flux field" develops. This is evident when electrons are pumped through a wire by an electrical potential and is the key to our electrical devices. The electron's mouth is always pointed in its direction of motion because less energy is used to accelerate the incoming ether when such an orientation is present, and the ether is "energy conscious."
When a battery pumps electrons through a wire, all of the electron mouths are pointed parallel to the wire. It is not the electron motion that is important in magnetism. What is important is the direction that the electron mouths are pointed. Their motion is necessary only to orient the electron mouths so that they point in the direction that the wire extends.
The Flux Field
When the electron mouths are pointed in the direction that the wire extends, a "flux field" is formed which appears to encircle the wire. This "field" is merely the flow of nether into the electrons. The plane of each spiral as seen from one side of the extended wire is perpendicular to the wire and the electrons are moving along the wire. So the spirals become one which extends the length of the wire.
The flux lines (made by iron filings to show the flux field) are not aligned with the direction of the incoming nether (dynamic ether) flow. When we look at the flux lines that exist perpendicular to the direction of the wire in which electron flow is present, we see that they are circular with the wire cross-section at the center. Viewed from this point, the incoming nether flow into the electrons moving along the wire is like looking at the top of whirlpool in your bathtub as it drains. Unfortunately, the nether cannot be seen and this vortex is not visible. What we do see is the flux lines.
Looking at the wire from one end as it points away from us, we can envision imaginary lines moving outward from the wire. These are the radial lines of the incoming nether flow which represent gravity. Perpendicular to the radials are tangential lines which are the keys to the phenomenon we call charge (attraction and repulsion between charged "particles"). The actual nether inflow is in the shape of a vortex which means its direction is at 45 degrees to both the radials and the tangential lines.
The tangential lines are what make the circles that we see as flux lines around the wire. Since the nether flow into the wire is an acceleration with lower velocities from distant points and higher velocities at closer points, each circular flux line represents a series of points at which the nether acceleration is the same.
The following illustration called Electron Hole and Vortex (Expanded Top View) may be used to see the flow of nether as it would appear moving into each electron traveling along the wire. This view is what would be seen from a cross-section of the wire appearing as a larger circle than the one shown, at the center of many concentric circles. The flux lines would be seen as the concentric circles (not shown) while the actual nether flow is shown as the curved lines which intersect the circle shown at 45 degrees. Vectorially, an example of one is illustrated as "resultant".
This is easily seen when viewing a single wire from one end. However, an electromagnet is created by bending the wire into a loop. A longer and more powerful magnet may be created by bending the wire into a helix (a series of loops). As we use our iron filings to see the flux field of the magnet, we are seeing the composite of many circular lines about the wires in the helix. This is true also for permanent magnets which operate on the same principles. So each flux line we see is still a series of points along which the nether acceleration inward is the same.
When flux lines are very close to one another as is the case at the center of a magnet, they are showing a volume of space in which the nether is relatively dense (it compresses). When flux lines are distant from one another, they are showing a volume of space in which the nether is relatively lacking in density. Because the flux lines are more concentrated in the magnet's center, the density of the nether at the center is greater than it is outside the magnet.
Forces between Parallel Wire Lengths
If we have a wire with direct current flowing through it such as that through which a battery is pumping electrons, and if we turn it back upon itself so that the part going outward from the battery is next to the part that is returning to the battery, we have two lengths of wire that are parallel. The direction of electron flow in one length is opposite to the direction of electron flow in the other length.
If we view the two lengths of wire from one end, we will see that in one length, there is clockwise flow into the wire, and in the other length, there is counterclockwise flow into the wire. The proximity of the wires tends to make the flowing electrons attempt to bring in the same volume of nether from the space between them. They cannot bring in the same volume, so more nether must be brought between them and this causes the nether to compress. Nether prefers to remain at the same pressure throughout, so the two lengths of wire have a force between them that tends to make them move apart.
If we have two wires parallel to one another coming from the same battery terminal, we have current moving in the same direction in both wires, and flow inward that is either clockwise in both or counterclockwise in both. And once again, there is nether compression. However, the best way for the nether compression to be reduced is by making the two wires become one. This creates a force that tends to move the wires toward one another.
Wire Loops and Helices
We can bend one of the same wires from a battery into a circle. Now we have a loop in which nether flow outside it may expand to infinity while nether flow inside it is compressed. Looking at the loop from another perspective, the opposite sides of the loop are like two parallel lengths of wire in which current flows in opposite directions.
We can take the same wire and form a helix (winding) which has the same properties as the loop, but multiplied. Here, the loops of the helix attempt to become one (pull together) while the pressure inside the helix creates a force which tries to pull the wire outward. This outward pressure can be increased with more loops (windings) and more current until we have a high-intensity magnet. When we have enough loops and enough current, the magnet will explode because the tensile strength of wire is exceeded.
A loop or helix has two magnetic poles. If the loop is in a horizontal plane, one pole will be at the top and the other at the bottom. If a helix has its loops in a horizontal plane, one pole will be at the top and other will be at the bottom. We can call the top pole the "north magnetic pole" and we can call the bottom pole the "south magnetic pole".
Two such helices may be placed so that one is atop the other. Here, we have a south pole of one over a north pole of the other. Their loops want to become one because there will be less nether compression if they join. So these opposite poles attract one another.
If we again place one helix above the other, but turn the top helix so it is upside down, we have a north pole above a north pole. The current in the top helix is now going in the opposite direction to the current in the bottom helix. The same effect may had by placing a south pole above a another south pole. The nether flow at the like adjacent poles is being compressed, so the two helices try to move apart. So like poles of a magnet repel one another.
A permanent magnet is based upon the same principles given above with electrons flowing in circular paths in different magnetic domains. When a ferromagnetic material is subjected to a magnetic field for a long period of time, or when it is subjected to a magnetic field for a short but traumatic period, some of its magnetic domains are re-aligned so that they reinforce one another magnetically. The result is a "permanent magnet".
The following illustrates the principles of magnetic attraction and repulsion with magnets oriented horizontally in relation to one another rather than vertically.
Use of Iron Filings
Iron filings jiggled upon a piece of paper over a magnet form a picture showing the lines of same flux density - which is the same as lines of same nether density about a magnet. The effect of nether pressure can be easily seen by the pictures created by the iron filings.
The Magnetic Monopole
The magnetic monopole is supposed to be a single pole of a magnetic particle - either a single south pole with no north pole or single north pole with no south pole. From the above, one can see that this is an absurdity. However, it is easy to see that such a thing might be theorized when one ignores the existence of a dynamic ether.
According to my current understanding, as of August 25, 2005, the following is what constitutes the reasons for like electrical charges (electron vs electron or proton vs proton) to repel, and for unlike charges (electron vs proton) to attract. Bear in mind that these entities are always in rapid motion which averages out to what we think we can perceive.
When two vortices with the same charge meet head on, the incoming nether of one is seen as crossing the incoming nether of the other at ninety degrees. In a frictionless fluid, this is not usually a problem, but the nether is also coming from the "front" (mouth-side) of each and the nether around the two is constantly in motion from forces other than what is caused by the two. The result is a force that causes them to repel one another to adhere to the law of using the least energy in nether flow.
They cannot usually meet back-to-back because they move in the directions in which their mouths are pointed. If they should be forced to arrive back-to-back, they are still moving and affect the nether around them. The incoming nether on one still crosses the incoming nether of the other at ninety degrees. Once again, there is a force that tends to move them apart.
If they arrive side-by-side, pointing in opposite directions, they try to move apart just as two wires with opposite currents tend to move apart.
If they arrive side-by-side pointing in the same direction, they attempt to take in the same volume of nether, but in opposite directions of flow. This causes them to want to move apart. Unlike captive electrons moving in the same direction within two parallel wires, they are free to move or turn in any direction according to the dictates of the forces around them and their own orientations. They cannot join because they are constantly in motion, and any offset placing one backward from the other causes conflict in nether entry. The illustration below shows what happens to create a repelling force in this instance.
If they arrive in close proximity with their mouths pointed at ninety degrees to one another, there is also conflict between the incoming nether for each and they attempt to move apart.
When two vortices of unlike charge meet head on, they attempt to join, up to a point, because their inflow is parallel in its direction of "rotation" and they attempt to "kiss" one another as each tries to take the same volume of nether.
Back-to-back there is a similar phenomenon, and side-to-side there is a tendency to join, up to a point, as shown in the illustration below.
With their mouths meeting at ninety degrees, there is a tendency for them rotate to another position which leads to the tendency to join.
To my knowledge, no one has ever worked with two electrons, two protons, or an electron with a proton to determine the details of charge. All experiments were with very large numbers of these entities and averages were taken to determine the math and general magnitude of static charge. Based upon the averaging that has been used and the fast motion of the entities involved, the specifics mentioned here make sense.
Note that joining cannot normally occur between an electron and a proton. At one point, the two arrive so closely to one another that they attempt to take in the same volume of nether and this prevents them from joining. However, I believe that if they happen to meet in the "kissing" mode explained above, they can become a neutron, still separate, but joined for a time. The proton, made of three vortices joined (called "quarks" with their "gluons" attached, using the terms of particle physicists) does not easily allow this occur.
Early Ignorance and Arbitrary Concepts
Electricity and magnetism were explored in bits and pieces before the big picture could have been known. This led to arbitrary labeling and some misconceptions. For example, the true electrical current direction in a wire is the direction of electron flow. However, this was not known early on. Consequently, the traditional direction for current is the direction of "hole" flow or positive charge which is opposite the direction of electron flow. We still suffer from being vastly ignorant of the true nature of electromagnetism as shown below, and we still use language that implies that we know what we are witnessing - which leads to confusion.
One thing should be made abundantly clear at this point. The left hand rule for electron flow showing flux in a counterclockwise direction as viewed from electrons moving away is strictly arbitrary. To my knowledge, No one has found a means to determine the direction of the so-called flux. This applies also to the right hand rule for current (which was first arbitrarily set as such before the direction of electron flow was determined). For the same reason, there is no way to determine the dominant direction of flow in a magnet and the terms "south" and "north" are arbitrary and could have been reversed. Although the traditional ways of labeling electromagnetic flux lines, pole types, current flow, etc. are consistent within themselves, there is no way yet to determine the actual direction of nether flow around a wire.
Very likely, by using a Sagnac type of experiment with a strong magnet, the direction of flow could be determined. Knowing the nether flow direction is not important now in regard to magnetic phenomena because attraction and repulsion are dependent upon nether density rather than the direction of nether flow. However, such knowledge may prove to be important in the future as more is known about electromagnetism.
Magnetism is what results from the nether (dynamic ether)
attempting (1) to remain at the same pressure throughout and
(2) to conserve energy, when it is compressed as it flows inward
into vorticles ("particles" which are actually vortices) which are
moving simultaneously in their directions of motion either in a loop
or helical pattern.
From the Glossary of Behind Light's Illusion
On www.gsjournal.net there is a paper written by Andre' Michaud with the title On the Magnetostatic Inverse Cube Law and Magnetic Monopoles. It states: It can be stated experimentally that interaction between magnetostatic fields for which both poles geometrically coincide obeys the inverse cube law of attraction and repulsion with distance... and there is much more. The experiment is very well thought out and performed. It led me to wonder why there is an inverse cube law involved, and the following is the result.
1. In any magnet, the same Mass of nether most flow inside that flows outside the magnet.
2. The volume of space inside the magnet is much less than that outside. If unimpeded the volume outside will extend to the edge of the universe (if there is an edge). The volume inside is limited to the the inside of the magnet.
3. Nether (dynamic ether) prefers to expand whenever it can. It always wants a larger volume.
4. The magnetic force (F) is caused by pressure (P) which is proportional to nether density (D). Nether density is equal to nether Mass (M) divided by the volume it must occupy (V).
5. So F must be proportional to M/V.
6. When two like magnetic poles are pushed together, they repel one another because the Mass outside their poles is being pushed into smaller volumes.
7. The volumes in which the Mass is found are slightly modified hemispheres.
The volume of a hemisphere is (2/3)(pi)r3.
8. This means that the volumes increase from nothing when the two poles are touching to the largest possible when the poles are allowed to separate widely - and are a function of the inverse of the radius cubed just as Andre' Michaud's experiment shows.
9. In the case of two unlike magnetic poles, their hemispheres are non-existent when they are touching and may become as large as possible as they are separated.
10. When touching, they have no hemispheres at all, and essentially the two magnets become one. They prefer to stay that way because hemispheres are volumes in which the Mass is either being pushed into or exiting from a small volume from inside each magnet. Separating the unlike poles begins to create hemispheres that are more volumes under pressure.
11. In this case, again we have volumes involved that have radii, but the force between the poles is one of attraction. So once again, the magnetic force, varies as the inverse of the radius (distance between the magnetic poles) cubed.
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