This glossary was taken directly from Behind Light's Illusion.
Words were added as needed for portions of this website.
Prestigious educational creditials do not make a scientist.
Scientists are people who scrupulously adhere to
scientific methods and principles in all of their work.
Sherry Elizabeth Martin
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acceleration - velocity/time (v/t), distance/time/time (d/t2), in regard to nether (dynamic ether) it is what is derived from change and what causes change.
alternating current - electric current alternately reversing its direction of flow in a regular manner.
AM (radio) - amplitude modulation where a carrier frequency is mixed with the frequencies providing the information at the transmitting station, and then removed by the radio receiver, leaving only the information frequencies. The louder the sound, the higher the amplitude of the wave.
ampere - a measure of the amount of electrical current flowing in an electrical conductor.
angular momentum - linear momentum has some mathematical difficulties when dealing with rotation for various types of solid bodies. It was mass multiplied by velocity multiplied by a radius from a center of rotation (mvr). This works for a mass at a point or at a common radius but for other masses, there are varying rates of rotation. So a moment of inertia was devised which works well for energy but not so well for true momentum. The electron is a vortex and the old linear momentum works much better in understanding a vortex. A full explanation can be found in Book Three of Behind Light's Illusion and in Light and Electron Spin on this website.
angular velocity - See Light and Electron Spin on this website.
antigluon - the mirror antimatter equivalent of a gluon. In nether theory, the tunnel vortices between two holes into the direction of the fourth dimension opposite that for what is commonly called matter.
astrology - originally, the study of all aspects of the heavenly bodies (especially those of the solar system) and of their influence upon all things of earth. Currently, this study also includes their influence upon the sun (called heliocentric astrology).
astronomical unit (AU) - the mean distance of the earth from the sun which is about 93 million miles.
astronomy - the science of the heavenly bodies, their motions, magnitudes, distances, and physical constitution.
atom - considered by most scientists to be a group of particles with a nucleus of at least one proton and at least one "orbiting" electron. In nether theory, the atom is a group of vorticles rather than particles.
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baryon - a three-quark composite in particle theory and a three-quarkon composite vorticle in nether theory.
Big Bang (or big bang) - the "explosion" that started the universe.
binary code - a code using two possible states.
binding energy - (1) The attraction between oppositely charged vorticles in the nucleus of an atom reduces the nether flow into them which reduces their mass. (2) The mouths of tunnel vortices of quarkons in nucleons attempt to take in the same volume of nether, creating a strong attracting force and blocking nether flow into them. Since mass is equated to energy, the mass reduction in each case is called the "binding energy."
black hole - a concentration of matter sufficient to have the incoming nether (ether) greater than the speed of light so that light cannot escape from it.
bottom quark - one of the six "flavors" of quarks.
Brahma - the Supreme Soul of the universe (from ancient India).
Brahma the Creator - the creative aspect of the greater Brahma (the Supreme Soul of the universe).
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carrier frequency - a frequency used at the "bottom" of two modulated (mixed) wave forms. The purpose of the carrier frequency is to "carry" the wave form containing information either through the nether (dynamic ether), a wire, or any other medium.
center of gyration - see Light and Electron Spin on this website.
centrifugal force - acceleration caused by turning a moving mass or Mass. When turning about a point, the formula is mv2/r or Mv2/r where m is mass, M is Mass, v is linear velocity, and r is the radius of the arc through which the mass or Mass is moving.
charge - also called "electrical charge" or "static charge". A quality of certain particles (vorticles) which causes repulsion and attraction between them, and the movement of which is electrical current. In nether theory, the action of the nether vortex of a vorticle acting upon or with the vortex of another vorticle.
charm - one of the six "flavors" of quarks.
color - in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), one of three classifications of quarks and gluons. In nether theory, one of three possible directions for the orientation of quarkons in baryons or mesons.
conductance - a measure of the ability of a material to conduct electricity.
conductivity - the ability of a material to conduct electricity.
conservation, laws of - the laws of conservation of momentum and conservation of energy, the former stating that moment is conserved at all times, and the latter stating that energy is conserved at all times. The more modern version of the latter states that energy or its mass equivalent is conserved at all times in the form of energy, mass, or a combination of the two.
constant velocity point - the point in a gravity funnel where the influence of gravity becomes so slight that it can no longer mask the acceleration of the expansion of the universe. See Constant Velocity Point on this website.
coriolis force - a force caused by inertia when a moving mass alters the radius of curvature of its path. In the science of meteorology, coriolis causes air masses to move the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere.
corpuscular theory of light - the theory that light is transmitted in discreet amounts, possibly by a particle called a photon.
cosmological constant - a constant devised by Einstein to act as a bandage for his theory of relativity when his theory could not explain why the universe did not collapse from gravitational force. The cosmological constant was added to his equations in such a way as to act as a long-range force to counteract gravity.
crosstalk - in the language called "telephonese", this term means the crossing over of the conversation in one conductor to interfere with the conversation in another conductor.
dark energy - the name that physicists have given the force which causes the acceleration of the expansion of the universe. It seems to be a name given to avoid the consequences of acknowledging the existence of a dynamic ether. The truth is that dark energy is dynamic ether.
dark matter - what in mainstream physics is considered to be responsible for the constant orbital velocity of bodies found beyond certain distances from the bodies about which they orbit (actually all orbits are about common centers of gravity for the bodies involved). In nether theory, there is no dark matter and the evidence for its supposed presence is caused by the accelerating expansion of the universe. See Constant Velocity Point on this website.
de Broglie wavelength - in 1924, a French physicist, Louis de Broglie, theorized that all matter might actually be waves. Photons were considered to be particles at this time. He suggested that the momentum of a photon, "p", is equal to "h/W" where "h" is Planck's constant and "W" is the wavelength. Today, the equation used is W = h/p and "W" is called the de Broglie wavelength. See More About Light on this website.
dimension - a distance that extends between two points or, in the case of a fundamental dimension for our universe, that extends between two infinities. Also, a fundamental measurement in an equation such as distance, time, velocity, acceleration, etc.
dimensional analysis - a means of using the dimensions in an equation to check its validity.
direct current - electric current moving in only one direction.
direction - the position of one point relative to another without reference to the intervening distance. In relation to a fundamental dimension of our universe, since each dimension is infinite in length, we are always somewhere along its length which from us extends in two directions. Ergo, each of our three or four dimensions extends from us in two directions.
Doppler effect - an effect found by Doppler in which the frequency of a cyclic phenomenon changes according to its velocity relative the observer.
down quark - one of the six "flavors" of quarks.
duration - the quality of enduring. Continuance. A form of "time" that is needed for there to be even a modicum of existence.
dynamic - of or pertaining to forces not in equilibrium. Motion as the result of force.
dynamic ether - ether that is acted upon by forces to remain in motion and which acts upon other portions of itself as well.
dynamic stability - the quality of remaining stable when acted upon by a force. In nether theory, the quality of a vorticle, tunnel vortex, or neutrino, to maintain its existence by varying its radius when its incoming or circling quantity of Mass is changed (within certain limits).
Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) - is stated as follows: (1) the weak equivalent principle (Newton's) is valid, (2) the outcome of any local non-gravitational experiment is independent of the velocity of the freely falling reference frame in which it is performed, (3) the outcome of any local non-gravitational experiment is independent of where and when in the universe it is performed. Also see weak equivalence principle.
electricity - a property of matter related to the behavior of either positive or negative electrical charges. The electromagnetic force in action.
electromagnet - a magnet which is activated by manmade electricity.
electromagnetic force - one of the four fundamental forces. The force which acts upon all charged particles (vorticles). In nether theory, the force caused by the motion of the nether in each vortex coupled with the tendency of the vortex to orient itself in the direction of local relative nether flow.
electromagnetic radiation - in nether theory, changes in direction of movement of electrons, transmitted by means of their inflowing nether.
electron - an enduring, charged vorticle used in the production of all forms of electricity, magnetism, and electromagnetic radiation. In nether theory, a dynamically stable vortex of nether energized by the pressure differential between the vacuum at its center and the nether surrounding it.
electron neutrino - one of three types of supposedly massless, chargeless particles. See neutrino.
empirical evidence - that which makes evident or clear based upon experience or observation.
electron-volt - a unit of energy equal to that acquired by an electron which passes through a potential difference of one volt.
energy - the power by which anything acts effectively to accomplish change.
energy level - any of several discrete energy states which an electron may assume within an atom.
entangled photons - two photons which are the result of splitting a single photon into two which are polarized at ninety degrees to one another. The detection of one polarization orientation automatically insures the detection of the other at ninety degrees from the first, regardless of which polarization orientation was first detected and regardless of the distance between the two detections.
EPR experiment - an experiment in quantum mechanics first performed in thought by Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen, in the year 1935. Its implications are astounding and were confirmed in reality in 1980. See entangled photons.
equinox - one of two opposite points in time at which the sun crosses the celestial equator. The times when the days and nights are of equal length.
equivalence principle - see weak equivalence principle and Einstein equivalence principle.
escape velocity - the minimal velocity required for something to escape from a gravity funnel (gravity well) if it is without any means of propulsion following its attainment of this escape velocity.
ether - a solid or semi-solid, perfectly elastic medium formerly assumed to pervade all of space and to be responsible for the transmission of light, heat, gravitational effects, and all forms of energy and radiation.
fermion - a composite particle whose total number of electrons, protons, and neutrons is an odd number. Fermion spin is equal to half of one Planck unit of action.
field - a portion of space at every point of which force is exerted.
flavor - a means of classifying quarks. Quarks come in six flavors: up, down, strange, charm, top, and bottom.
flux - according to dictionary, a continuous flowing or discharge.
flux lines - according to nether theory, lines depicting points where inward nether acceleration is the same. Where flux lines are closer together, nether density is greater. Where flux lines are farther apart, nether density is less.
force - anything which changes or tends to change the state of rest or motion in or of a body.
four forces - the four fundamental forces of physics: gravity, electromagnetic force, the strong force, and the weak force.
fourth dimension - the dimension into which nether flows when it enters the heart of a vorticle.
frequency - the number of occurrences of a periodic quantity in a unit of time, such as waves, vibrations, or oscillations.
frequency stacking - when using amplitude modulation (see AM) to place numerous paths for communication in a single medium such as the nether, a wire, or a glass filament, a series of carrier frequencies are used in a "stacked" fashion, one above another. This is called "frequency stacking".
gamma ray - an electromagnetic ray emitted from radioactive substances. Its energy is far in excess of the highest frequency X-rays.
gauss - a unit of magnetic induction equal to a field exerting a force of one dyne on a unit magnetic pole, or .7958 ampere-turns per centimeter (named after Karl F. Gauss).
gauge boson - a composite particle whose total number of electrons, protons, and neutrons is an even number. Its spin is equal to one Planck unit of action.
general relativity - the 1915 version of relativity which included the 1905 special theory and the equivalence principle.
glueball - a theorized entity made of "curled" gluons of color charges which add up to "white" and which form a ball. In nether theory, its analog would be a very transitory manifestation of a tunnel vortex divorced from its quark or antiquark with its mouth upon its tail.
gluon - an entity that supposedly glues quarks and antiquarks together. In nether theory it is the "tube" of two tunnel vortices of quarkons or antiquarkons meeting. The "glue" effect comes from the holes (quarks or antiquarks) doing what holes always do - moving in the directions in which their "mouths" are pointed.
grand unified theory - a theory which explains everything in physics. Also called the theory of everything.
gravitational constant (G) - a constant found by solving the equation
F = G(m1m2/R2) for "G", where "F" is force, "m1" is the mass of one body, "m2" is the mass of the second body, and "R" is the distance between them.
graviton - a particle that is supposed to transmit gravity. In nether theory there is no such thing. See pushing gravity.
gravity - the acceleration which holds us on this planet. It is caused by nether acceleration in a gravity funnel. In nether theory, gravity is the combined radial components of the vortices of a large group of vorticles. Micro-gravity, which is very different in its manifestation, is the radial component of the single vortex of one vorticle, or of a few vortices of a few vorticles. At a certain point, the smaller the number of vorticles, the less the influence of gravity as compared to other forces.
gravity funnel - the incoming nether moving from infinite space into a group of vorticles (mass). The cross-sections of the funnel become less and less as the incoming nether approaches the mass, causing the nether to accelerate and create what we call gravity.
gravity lensing - the phenomenon found to magnify distant celestial objects which are behind other large celestial objects or large concentrations of celestial objects. Named so because it is caused by gravity pulling light, bending light as does a lens.
gravity waves - waves caused by changes in gravity. In the laboratory, they can be produced by a rotating dumb bell. In nature they can be produced by a rapidly spinning high-density star which is oblate enough to act like a big dumb bell. They are simply the result of a mass moving rapidly closer and farther from a detector. This causes the detector to "feel" a higher gravity when the mass is closer and a lower gravity when the mass is farther. This is a no brainer to predict, but some people think that it is`remarkable.
gravity well - an old name for a mass with innate gravity.
hadron - a composite "particle" made of quarks which "feels" the strong force.
half-wave - half of one wave of light, a series of which form a "photon" made of light waves.
Heisenberg's uncertainty relation (principle) - in quantum mechanics the position and momentum of a particle (vorticle) do not have well defined values simultaneously. There is uncertainty in their measured values such that the product of the variations in each is equal to or greater than half of Planck's unit of action.
helix - a shape like a coil spring.
Hubble constant - a constant based upon Hubble's Law. It is found by dividing the perceived velocity of recession of a distant celestial object by its distance from us.
Hubble's law - a law found by Hubble which states that the velocity of recession of a distant galaxy is directly proportional to its distance from us.
humanism - a philosophy which threatened the grip of the Catholic Church during the sixteenth century in Europe. It was a renewal of classical culture and introduced questions which indicated, according to Church officials, heretical thought.
illusory time - the way we measure "time" by using motion.
inductance - (1) the capacity of an electric circuit for responding to a magnetoelectrically induced current and (2) self induction in an electric circuit or its equivalent for purposes of measurement. In nether theory, the tangential vector of accelerating nether from accelerating electrons creating electron acceleration at a distance.
inertia - the name given to the tendency of something to continue to do whatever it is doing unless it is disturbed by something else. And, indeed, why shouldn't it continue to do whatever it is doing unless it is bothered by something else?
inertial reference frame - a frame of reference for distinguishing motion in which force-free bodies move along straight lines.
instantaneous velocity - the incoming nether (dynamic ether) velocity that would be the case at any particular part of a gravity funnel if acceleration and jerk of the nether were assumed not to be happening.
inverse square law - a law of solid geometry as applied to physics which states that a quality such as gravity or radiation is reduced in proportion to the inverse of the square of the distance from the center of the source.
jerk - acceleration per unit of time, a/t.
Kabbalah - a system of ancient Hebrew wisdom.
kinetic energy - energy from motion, usually expressed as mv2/2. Actually, this formula is a shortcut that no one seems to realize is misleading. It comes from force being the product of mass and acceleration (f = ma), and energy being the product of force and distance over which the force is exerted (E = fd = mad). This can be translated to mv2/2 which is easier to measure and to use for computations. However, mv2/2 depends upon velocity which is a relative term and mad does not (it is not a relative term). So mv2/2 can vary according its reference point while mad will not vary.
Krishna - the eighth avatar of Vishnu the Preserver (India).
length contraction - the supposed reduction of length due to velocity via the Lorentz factor according to Einstein's relativity.
lepton - particles (vorticles) with a spin of 1/2 and which do not respond to to the strong force.
light - (1) an easier way to say electromagnetic radiation, or (2) that part of electromagnetic radiation which we can see.
light-year - the distance light travels in one year which is about six trillion miles.
linear momentum - momentum of an object moving along a line.
local Lorentz invariance - the second statement of the Einstein equivalence principle.
local position invariance - the third statement of the Einstein equivalence principle.
longitudinal wave - a wave that acts in its direction of travel. See More About Light on this website.
Lorentz factor - the factor, 1/[1+(v2/c2]1/2, which was discovered by Fitzgerald and Lorentz in an attempt to explain why the Michelson-Morley experiment might have been unable to detect acceptable ether velocities relative to the surface of the earth.
Lorentz transform - the Lorentz transformation equations which were derived by Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, a Dutch physicist, and used by Albert Einstein to explain his theory of relativity. The key factor in these equations can be derived from the Pythagorean theorem. These transforms work both for Einstein's theory and for nether theory.
lu - a note of the musical scale (Chinese).
magnetic monopole - a single solitary magnetic pole, alone and without an opposite pole. This is an old concept based upon ignorance, which has finally been discarded by most physicists and is certainly an impossibility according to the nether theory of magnetism.
magnetic pole - one of the poles of a magnet or of a body in which magnetism is one of its properties.
magnetism - aside from nether theory, there appears to be no definition for magnetism that does not simply repeat that it is a property of magnets (while a magnet is something with the property of magnetism). In nether theory, magnetism is what results from the nether (dynamic ether) attempting (1) to remain at the same pressure throughout and (2) to conserve energy, when it is compressed as it flows inward into vorticles which are moving simultaneously in their directions of motion either in a loop or a helical pattern.
Mass - the inertia of a volume of nether (dynamic ether). Because nether is compressible, Mass is essentially a measure of its density.
mass - a fundamental property of matter. In nether theory, when mass and Mass are equated using time, m = M/t.
Mass equivalence law - in nether theory, the law which states that the inflow of Mass must be the same at all levels of a gravity funnel.
matter - that which constitutes the essence or substance of a particular thing. In nether theory, that which is made of vorticles.
meson - a quark and an antiquark combined.
Michelson-Morley experiment - an experiment performed by Michelson and Morley in 1887 in an attempt to prove the existence of ether.
micro-gravity - the effect of the inward or radial vectors of the vortices of subatomic entities. It is very small in relation to other forces at the submicroscopic level due to the nature of its geometry. See gravity.
Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) - a theory developed by Professor Mordehai Milgrom which explains dark matter as a modification of Newton's second law of motion. See Constant Velocity Point on this website.
molecule - the smallest part of an element, substance, or compound that can exist freely in the solid, liquid, or gaseous state and still retain its composition and properties. A molecule usually consists of two or more atoms in combination.
momentum - the quantity of motion in a body as measured by the product of its mass and velocity. Since velocity is relative, so is momentum. Neither are absolutes.
moment of inertia - see angular momentum.
mouth - in nether theory, the part of vorticle or tunnel vortex which pulls in the nether.
muon - one of the three leptons which are not neutrinos.
muon neutrino - one of three types of supposedly massless, chargeless particles. See neutrino.
nether - the name given to dynamic ether to distinguish it from the old concept of a static ether.
neutrino - in accepted physics, a tiny particle which moves at the speed of light, probably has no mass, and certainly has no charge or gravity as a means of announcing its presence. In nether theory, a subcategory of a half-wave moving through nether. It cannot be detected easily because it uses nether "Mass" but has no "mass". It can be theorized because rotational energy is not the same from one side of certain equations to the other - equations which depict what happens in certain experiments. It has no nether inflow and it is the inflow the causes something to manifest gravity and charge. This means that it has no means of communicating with other entities except via a collision. Although it has no mass, it does have Mass because it is using Mass in motion to manifest (as any wave does). With no ability to communicate, a neutrino can penetrate light-years of matter without being detected.
neutron - one of two constituents of an atomic nucleus, a nucleon. In nether theory, the temporary joining of a proton and an electron. The neutron is not a stable entity when alone.
nothing - in nether theory, the sum of everything.
nucleon - a constituent of an atomic nucleus.
nucleus - the innermost part of an atom.
Occam's Razor - William Occam's Law of Economy. Never multiply explanations or make them more complicated than necessary. It is vain to do with more what can be done with less. This law supposedly became the cornerstone of investigative disciplines, but has been discarded for over a century in favor of political considerations.
octave - in music or any vibratory work, going up one octave means to double the frequency, and going down one octave means to halve the frequency. "Octave" comes from a word meaning eight because each eighth white key on a keyboard doubles the frequency of the starting key.
orbit - this was the old way of explaining electron energy levels in an atom. It is still used in this regard even though it is accepted by most that the electron in "orbit" does not maintain a regular path but more of a vibration resulting from the imbalancing of attracting and repelling forces.
parallax - an effect in which using different viewing angles allows astronomers to estimate the distances of far celestial objects. See parsec.
parsec - a "parallax-second", meaning the distance to a star when the star can be viewed from two points so that the two angles to the star differ by exactly one second of arc. One parsec is almost exactly 206,265 times the mean distance of the earth from the sun (206,265 astronomical units), 19.2 trillion miles, or 3,26 light-years. See The Expanding Universe, Quasars, and the K Effect on this website.
particle - a piece of matter, separate from other pieces of matter. In nether theory, there are no particles. There are vortices of various types which are not separate from other vortices. These vortices are called vorticles.
Pauli exclusion principle - a principle first enunciated by Wolfgang Pauli which states that particles (vorticles) with spin of 1/2 (such as baryons or leptons) can exist in the same structure only so long as no more than one occupies a particular quantum state (set of quantum numbers). It thus underwrites the electronic structure of atoms and the quark structure of hadrons.
permanent magnet - a magnet that endures and does not require an external source of power to exist.
phlogiston - a mythical substance once thought to be within everything that is combustible.
photon - a quantity of light or electromagnetic radiation.
pion - a pi meson, a type of meson made of very lightweight quarks (in nether theory, quarkons).
pion (neutral) - a type of meson formed by an up quark and its antiquark, or a down quark and its antiquark held together by a gluon. In nether theory, an up quarkon and its antiquarkon, or a down quarkon and it antiquarkon held together by the sucking of their two facing mouths (the strong force).
pion (negative) - a type of meson formed by a down quark and an up antiquark held together by a gluon. In nether theory, a down quarkon and an up antiquarkon held together by the sucking of their two facing mouths (the strong force). The mass of the negative pion equals that of the positive pion and is greater than that of the neutral pion because the facing tunnel vortices of the neutral pion are interlocking (spinning in synch) while those of the positive and negative pions are contra-rotating when facing.
pion (positive) - a type of meson formed by an up quark and a down antiquark held together by a gluon. In nether theory, an up quarkon and a down antiquarkon held together by the sucking of their two facing mouths (the strong force). The mass of the positive pion is equal to that of the negative pion and greater than that of the neutral pion because the facing tunnel vortices of the neutral pion are interlocking (spinning in synch) while those of the positive and negative pions are contra-rotating when facing.
In current-day accepted physics, the neutral pion is considered to be without charge because it is composed of two quarks which supposedly are opposite in charge. In nether theory there is more than math involved. The two tunnel vortices face one another which means that their vortices are synchronized, turning the same way so that it would seem that there is charge. However, for charge to be effective, the mouths of the two vortices manifesting it must be at least roughly aligned according to the local nether acceleration. This is impossible in the case of a neutral pion because the mouths are facing one another. Without the proper fixed alignment, the pion can turn any way it wishes when a charged entity is present and it will not "feel" The charge. So, in the case of a neutral pion, there effectively is no charge. The positive and negative pions are even less likely to feel the charge because the mouths of their tunnel vortices are rotating in opposite directions to one another and thus cancel out any tendency for a charge. So with pions of all four types, there is essentially no charge even though the pure math of our theoretical physicists would lead us to believe that the positive and negative pions have it.
The synchronized mouths of quarkons of the neutral pions use more "binding energy" which depletes their mass farther than the contra-rotating vortices of the positive and negative pions. Thus the former types have a mass of only 134.96 MeV each, while the latter types have have a mass of 139.57 MeV each.
Planck area - a ubiquitous quantity given as Gh/c3 which seems to be more fundamental than the Planck length. See More About the Electron on this website.
Planck's constant - the fundamental quantum of energy or momentum. In nether theory, half of Planck's constant is the fundamental quantum and is merely a measure of the acceleration of nether in the passage of one half-lightwave.
Planck force - See Planck length.
Planck length - approximately 1.6160x10-35 meter based upon the joule second version of Planck's constant. In general relativity, it is the natural unit of Planck force, giving unit acceleration to unit mass. It is supposedly the key to how gravity works. It is the square root of "bar h", shown here as h, multiplied by "c" for the natural force area unit, hc, divided by the natural unit force, c4/G. See More About the Electron on this website.
Planck unit of action - Planck's constant divided by two pi. It is used as the fundamental measure of spin. In nether theory, the fundamental unit of spin is Planck's constant divided by 4 pi.
polarization - a direction of orientation for electromagnetic waves which is ninety degrees from its direction of action and its direction of travel.
positron - the antimatter mirror-image of the electron. In nether theory, a vorticle with the same mass as the electron but formed from nether entering the opposite direction of the fourth dimension.
potential energy - the energy possible were a mass to fall a certain distance in a gravity funnel. Potential Energy=height x mass x average gravity experienced during the fall.
proton - a nucleon with a positive charge. Also a hadron and one of two stable particles. In nether theory, the proton is a baryon composed of three quarkons of which two are up quarkons and one is a down quarkon. Each of the three quarkons may be of any color of the three known in QCD as long as the other two are always one each of the other two colors. The quarkons maintain average positions pointed away from the proton center in directions which allow each of the quarkons to remain at approximately ninety degrees from the other two. This allows a large vortex to form where the mouths of the tunnel vortices are most open, which is the largest part of the Mass within the proton.
pulsars - rapidly spinning stars that are deformed so that the diameters at their equators are not the same all the way around. They are deformed so that they act somewhat like a laboratory dumb-bell. Therefore, they emit gravity waves that bleed off their energy so that they do not reach a point where centrifugal force can cause them to disintegrate. See gravity waves.
pulse code modulation - a means of coding in redundant binary form to create error-free communication from one point to another. It is the basis of what is popularly called digital communication today. When dealing with multiple lines of communication in a single medium, it uses "time stacking" as opposed to the older "frequency stacking".
pushing gravity - A theory first created by Le Sage in the 18th century with many variations but is basically that of a universe filled with very tiny particles moving in all directions which push upon material objects shadowing one another from the onslaught of the tiny particles. The result is the movement of the material bodies toward one another, which we call gravity. The pushing particles have been called "gravitons", bearing in mind that this term is not exclusive to Le Sage theories.
Pythagorean theorem - the theorem based upon right triangles in which the sum of the squares of the sides is equal to the square of the hypotenuse. This theorem is actually one of the fundamental principles of the universe in that it either defines or is a direct consequence (or both) of the law of conservation of energy, and a direct means of defining the relationship between each of our three dimensions.
quantum - the fundamental unit of energy which cannot be divided into smaller units.
quantum chromodynamics (QCD) - a theory which uses three "colors" of quarks, antiquarks, gluons, and antigluons to show how hadrons are constructed.
quantum electrodynamics (QED) - the way electromagnetic theory is supposed to work according to present-day physics.
quantum mechanics - the theory of quantum physics.
quantum number - a discrete value for a particular quality of an electron or quark, a set of which constitute the quantum state of the vorticle.
Electron states for an atom:
The principal quantum number which is related to the distance from the nucleus is n. The orbital quantum number which is related to orbital angular momentum is l. The orbital magnetic quantum number which is related to orbital angular momentum (z component) is ml. The spin magnetic quantum number which is related to spin angular momentum (z component) is ms.
All states with the same value of n form a shell. There are 2n2 states in a shell. All states with the same values of the quantum numbers n and l form a subshell. All states in a subshell have the same energy.
For a given value of l, there are 2l+1 possible values for orbital magnetic quantum number ml. For each ml, there are 2 possible values for the spin quantum number ms. Thus, there are 2(2l+1) states in a subshell.
According to the Pauli exclusion principle, no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of the quantum numbers n, l, ml, and ms.
quantum state - a state characterized by a set of quantum numbers.
quasar - a foreshortening of "quasi-stellar sources" which are celestial sources of strong radio waves and have huge red shifts, many of which would indicate a recession of more than 25,000 miles per second were recession to be the major reason for the red shift. See The Expanding Universe, Quasars, and the K Effect on this website.
quark - considered to be the basic constituent of hadrons by most theoretical physicists. There are six types: up, down, strange, charm, top, and bottom. In nether theory, a quark is hole into the fourth dimension which, when taken with its tunnel vortex, forms a complete entity which is a "quarkon".
quarkon - in nether theory, the half-gluon (tunnel vortex) combined with a quark to make an intact subatomic entity.
radial - extending from a center in the manner of rays.
radio wave - a type of electromagnetic wave. The manmade versions using antennae are made with multiple electrons accelerating in unison in the same direction as opposed the usual production of light with multiple electrons vibrating separately in different directions.
radius of gyration - see Light and Electron Spin on this website.
real time - the time line that we never see except in memory and in projections of possible futures. It is the last dimension in our universe that is needed for existence. Thought to be the dimension where nether goes when it leaves our universe.
red shift - the name given to the lengthening of electromagnetic waves from distant points in space. There are several reasons for this effect to occur. For instance, one is the Doppler effect caused by motion away from us. Another is gravity from the object sending the light. A third is the expanding universe. The color red has the longest wavelengths of visible light, so the effect is called the "red shift".
relativity - Einstein's theory in which there is no all-encompassing inertial reference frame for the universe and the only universal constant is the speed of light in a vacuum. The theory is complex and is defined in at least one dictionary as: the principle of the interdependence of matter, energy, space, and time as mathematically formulated by Albert Einstein.
resistance - in electricity, the opposition offered by a body to the passage through it of an electric current. The reciprocal of conductance.
resultant - the force, velocity, acceleration, etc. resulting from the action of two or more quantities of the same kind.
Sagnac effect - the name given to Sagnac's discovery of ether to prevent it from being known as what it is. Had it been acknowledged as the discovery of ether, too many reputations would have been ruined. See Is There a Dynamic Ether on this website.
satrap - any petty ruler under a despot.
satrapy - the territory or jurisdiction of a satrap. A satrapy pays tribute to a "protector" who uses the satrapy to increase his wealth and as a buffer zone against aggression.
Schwarzschild radius - the distance from the center of a black hole to the point where the speed of the incoming nether is equal to the speed of light. In other words, the distance from the center from which light can no longer escape. Outside the Schwarzschild radius, light can escape. At and inside this radius, light cannot escape. See Black Holes or More About the Electron on this website.
sequential time - time seen as a linear sequence of events of cause and effect.
Seyfert galaxy - a type of galaxy studied extensively by Halton Arp which periodically causes large quantities of matter to be ejected in opposing directions, leading to two lines of quasars, one on each side of the galaxy. See The Expanding Universe, Quasars, and the K Effect on this website.
Siva the Destroyer - the destroying aspect of the greater Brahma (the Supreme Soul of the universe).
special relativity - Einstein's 1905 version of relativity dealing with physics in inertial reference frames. As a consequence of the theory of relativity, we have the formula E = mc2. This equates matter and energy and shows that they are different aspects of the same thing.
spin - see angular momentum. In nether theory, the tangential component of momentum of the nether vortex of a vorticle or group of vorticles.
static - unmoving. Pertaining to bodies at rest or forces in equilibrium.
static charge - also called electric charge. Defined in a current physics book: an intrinsic characteristic of the fundamental particles. In nether theory, a force caused by (1) the vortex of a vorticle which extends outward to infinity, (2) the overlapping of the vortices of vorticles interacting as they use common nether, and (3) the energy-conserving tendency of nether action which orients the mouths of vorticles to point in the direction of local nether flow.
strange quark - one of the six "flavors" of quarks.
strong force - the force that holds the particles in the nucleus of an atom together, acting over short distances of about 10-15 meters. The force of the binding energy. In nether theory, (1) the force between the mouths of the tunnel vortices of two quarkons of a composite entity, or (2) the force between two vortices of opposite charge when in close proximity.
submicroscopic time - the time of rates of change during chemical, biological, and nuclear processes. The same as illusory time but at a submicroscopic level.
subjective time - time as perceived by the mind which is governed by the lifespan of conscious memory and the amount of pleasure or pain experienced.
superconductivity - perfect electrical conductivity devoid of any resistance.
tangential - perpendicular to the radius from the relevant center.
tau - one of the three leptons which are not neutrinos.
tau neutrino - one of three types of supposedly massless, chargeless particles. See
tensor analysis - a means of analyzing via three planes, each of which has three vectors, for a total of nine vectors.
theory of everything - a theory which explains everything in physics. Also known as a grand unified theory.
time - a general and ambiguous term which should be defined correctly for use in communication. There are at least six types of time: duration, sequential, real, illusory, submicroscopic, and subjective.
time dilation - according to Einstein's relativity, the slowing of the passage of time for an object in motion relative to an observer. In nether theory, the slowing of the passage of time for an object in motion relative to the surrounding nether, or for an object surrounded by nether in motion.
tone - in this series, the pitch of a sound, a pitch being a frequency classification.
top quark - one of the six "flavors" of quarks.
transmutation - the changing of one element into another through alteration of its nuclear structure.
transposition - in telephone language, the altering of positions of open wire along telephone poles. In the time of bare wires along poles carrying conversations, it was customary to "transpose" the wires in such a manner as to eliminate crosstalk due to induction.
transverse wave - a wave that acts at right angles to its direction of travel. See More About Light on this website.
tunnel vortex - half of a gluon. In nether theory, the vortex part of a quarkon or antiquarkon.
unified field theory - this was the name for a theory which was to unify the four fundamental forces known in Einstein's time. Einstein believed that it existed and would be discovered, and he continued to work on it during his lifetime.
unified theory - any theory which can unify the four forces (see unified field theory).
up quark - one of the six "flavors" of quarks.
vector - a quantity with a direction. A car moving east at 60 miles per hour could be represented by a vector (an arrow) pointed east with a scalar value of 60 mph.
velocity - the change of position with respect to time.
vibration - a periodic, regular, back and forth motion.
Vishnu the Preserver - the preserving aspect of the greater Brahma (the Supreme Soul of the universe).
visible light - the part of electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived by the eye.
volt - in electricity, a measure of the force exerted. It is analogous to pressure in a fluid. That difference in potential which will produce a current of one ampere against a resistance of one ohm.
vortex - a mass of whirling or rotating fluid sucked spirally toward a center.
vorticle - the name in nether theory given to "particles" which are actually vortices or groups of vortices.
watt - the practical unit of electrical power.
wavelength - the distance, measured along the line of propagation, between two points representing similar phases of two consecutive waves.
wave theory for light - the theory that light is transmitted via waves. Often in opposition to the corpuscular theory of light.
weak force - one of the fundamental forces of nature manifested in Beta decay, some radioactive decays, and neutrino interactions. In nether theory, the result of extremely close encounters of vorticles in which some loss of mass occurs due to the partial blocking of inward nether flow. This is a force that repels.
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