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A Short History - Einstein


The following short biographies were taken from the Encyclopedia Americana, 1960, from Source Book of Physics by Magie, published by McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1935, and other older sources. Political correctness has become so rampant in later editions of encyclopediae and textbooks that truth is more and more difficult to find within their pages.


George Francis Fitzgerald was born in Dublin, Ireland on August 3, 1851. He died in Dublin on February 21, 1901. He graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1871; became tutor there in 1879; and from 1881 until his death he was Erasmus Smith, professor of natural philosophy. His field of research embraced electric waves and electrolysis.


Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was born in Arnheim, Holland in 1853. He died in Haarlem on February 5, 1928. He was educated at the University of Leyden; was a teacher for five years in 1872-77 in his native place and in the latter year was made professor of mathematical physics at the Arnheim University. He developed Maxwell's ether theory, and was one of the founders of the electron theory. He arrived at the formula for the function of refraction at the same time as his namesake Lorenz of Copenhagen and subsequently developed the so-called "Zeeman effect". In 1902 Lorentz was awarded, with Zeeman, the Nobel prize for physics. In 1906 he lectured at Columbia University and in 1912-13 at the College de France. In 1907 and 1909 he was director of scientific expeditions in New Guinea. His published works include La theorie electromagnetique de Maxwell (1892); Versuch einer theorie der electrischen und optischen Erscheinungen in bewegten Korpern (1895); Textbook of Differential and Integral Calculus (1882; 2nd ed., 1907); Textbook of Physics (1888-90; German trans., 1907); Zichtbare en onzichtbare bewegingen (1901; German 1902); Abhandlungen uber theoretische Physik (1907); The Theory of Electrons (1909).

Lorentz' development of Maxwell's work includes electrons as producers of electromagnetic waves. Lorentz also expounded the electron theory which assumed that the atoms of all 92 elements consisted of electrons arranged in different groupings and associated with a nucleus of opposite electrical charge. Lorentz predicted that electrons moving at high speeds should exhibit an increased mass and would undergo length contraction. Today, the increase in mass predicted by Lorentz has been verified many times over in particle accelerators and has been incorporated into the design of cathode ray tubes used in television, computer monitors, etc.


Albert Abraham Michelson was born on December 19, 1852, in Strelno, Prussia. His family moved to the United States when he was an infant. In 1873, he graduated from the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, where he later served as a science instructor (1875-1879). He took graduate courses in physics in Berlin, Heidelberg, and Paris, resigned from the Navy, and in 1883 became professor of physics at the Case School of Applied Science in Cleveland, Ohio. From 1889 to 1892, he was professor of physics at Clark University. From 1892 until just before his death in 1931, he was head of the department of physics at the University of Chicago and was connected with that institution until his death in Pasadena, California, on May 9, 1931.

While instructing at Annapolis, Michelson improved an apparatus invented by J. B. Foucault and established new figures for the velocity of light in a "vacuum", and thereafter developed his interferometer, establishing the wavelength of light as a practical unit of measure. He continued with a long line of accomplishments and experiments. The best known of his experiments was performed in 1881, and performed again on a more elaborate scale in 1887 with Edward William Morley.


Edward William Morley was born on January 29, 1838, in Newark, New Jersey. He graduated from Williams College in 1860. He was a chemist who became the professor of chemistry in Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1869. He was also professor of chemistry in the Cleveland Medical College for some years. He died on February 24, 1923.


Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany, on March 14, 1879. He was educated at technical schools in Munich and Switzerland. From 1902 through 1909, he worked as a patent examiner in the Berne patent office. During this period, he wrote numerous scientific articles which were published, and which led to his appointment as professor of theoretical physics at the University of Zurich (1909-1911). In 1913, he became the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physics. In 1914, he became a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences.

Einstein left Germany and came to the United States when Hitler came into power. He received an appointment for life at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

He is known for his theory of relativity which establishes an interrelation between mass and energy, states that only relative motion of objects can be observed, and establishes time as a fourth dimension to be measured along with three dimensions of space. There are two theories of relativity. One is the "special theory" and the other is the "general theory".



Biographies - Einstein

In the late 19th century there were two fundamental theories for the nature light (electromagnetic radiation). One was the theory that had been accepted by Newton. Newton considered light to be corpuscular in nature much like a little cannonball moving through space to deliver its energy. There were most likely many more sophisticated variations on this theme, but in general this was considered the corpuscular theory for light. The other theory considered light to be a wave moving through a medium called the "ether".

Experiments performed by various people, especially James Clerk Maxwell, indicated that the ether was a reality. At the time of the Michelson-Morley experiment it was generally considered to be stationary with material bodies such as the earth moving through it. It co-existed with matter, but was distinct from matter.

In 1897, the second experiment of its kind was performed by Michelson and Morley. It was an attempt to prove the existence of a stationary ether through which the earth moved. In this experiment, the velocity of light was used to find an approximate predetermined value for the velocity of the earth's surface relative to the ether. A relative velocity was found which was much lower than expected. The experiment was considered a failure at the time, even by those who performed it. Critics subsequently claimed that there was no relative velocity found. Proponents of ether theory thought that the ether might be "entrained" and, therefore, not properly detectable using the MM type of experiment.

The Michelson-Morley Experiment

After the supposedly poor result of the MM experiment, Fitzgerald and Lorentz working independently, simultaneously suggested that length might affected by motion, and discovered what is now called the Lorentz factor which is 1/[1-(v2/c2]1/2. This factor, when accepted as a means of decreasing any length used in a derivation of motion, meant that the speed of light would not be a means of measuring the relative ether velocity. However, this factor was derived as being a "fudge factor" for length with no reason known as to why length should be decreased with velocity.

Lorentz Factor Derivation

It should be mentioned at this point that the Lorentz factor was based upon the conclusion that there would be no evidence of relative ether velocity in the MM type of experiment. In actuality, there was a small relative velocity - which was also found in later years when Dayton Miller performed more elaborate experiments of this type. A seasonal variation was detected as well as differences due to location upon the earth. See Volume 7, Issues 37 through 39 of Infinite Energy Magazine, article by James DeMeo, A. G. Kelly, Paula N. Correa, and Alexandra N. Correa.

It should also be mentioned that any decrease in length, according to special relativity, would not be found by the observer within his particular reference frame. Nor would he notice any change in the velocity of light. The light in the MM experiment was traveling in different directions along the same path length as was true in Sagnac's experiment performed at a later date. According to special relativity, there should be no detection of ether in this type of experiment.

In Einstein's relativity, length contraction is what an observer moving at relativistic speed sees (experiences) from objects or distances between objects that are not moving at so fast a speed. Length contraction is a consequence of time dilation experienced by the observer moving at relativistic speed. In reality, it is an apparent effect - not an actual effect - and the object or distance is still the same length as ever. The same effect is true in the same manner in nether theory except that in nether theory time dilation occurs when the observer is moving at relativistic speed relative to the nether. Under most conditions, relativity and nether theory agree.

In the MM experiment, the distances would not have experienced any real length contraction because both the observer and the length measured are in the same reference frame. Therefore, length contraction according to Einstein was not applicable. This is why there was a small difference found in the MM type experiments and the larger difference in the Sagnac type as opposed to a lack of any difference. The reason the MM types had lower readings has to do with the fact that nether compresses as it falls into a gravity funnel. This is shown in detail in Is There a Dynamic Ether on this website.

When Sagnac used a different approach from Michelson and Morley, he still used light moving in opposite directions. If length contraction according to Fitzgerald and Lorentz, were invoked in such an instance, his results would not have been as they were. However, his results were in accord with nether theory interpretation of length contraction.

When Albert Einstein proposed his special theory of relativity a few years later, it gave sufficient reason for Lorentz to defer to Einstein and the Lorentz transforms have become a part of the special theory of relativity. Einstein had a much better understanding of the nature of length contraction and had developed it to what we know today.

In 1914 (some accounts say 1913), Sagnac used a different means to rule out any possible effect caused by "entrained" ether. He proved the existence a medium through which light traveled as a wave. However, politically motivated physicists called his experimental results the "Sagnac effect" and prevented its wide publication as best they were able. When the new textbooks were written, Sagnac was not mentioned. Today, his work has been incorporated by engineers into the technology used for navigation. This technology would not be possible without Sagnac's work and the physicists still ignore him and have no explanation for his "effect".

In 1965, I derived the same Lorentz factor in a few simple steps which showed that the presence of a dynamic ether created time dilation. See Time on this website. Subsequently, it was shown that movement relative to the dynamic ether also caused the relativistic increase in mass and the phenomenon of length contraction, all according to the Lorentz factor (found in Book Five of Behind Light's Illusion).

At the time that Einstein began working on his special theory, there were two basic factions in physics as has been stated previously. Einstein has been quoted by both as being an ally. It has been stated both ways: that his theory favored the corpuscular view of light, and that his theory favored the wave theory for light. Einstein actually was favoring neither in his theory of special relativity. He was simply using the evidence presented to develop something that made sense. However, his second postulate seems to favor the wave theory of light and in his autobiographical notes he shows that he was working on a wave theory for light before he began work on his special theory. He continued work on a wave theory for light until he was 67 years old when he was writing his notes, and probably after that time as well.

In Einstein's second postulate of the special theory he states that the velocity of light [in space] is a constant independent of its source and of the Galilean system with respect to which it is measured. He made this a postulate because the verifiable evidence of the time indicated that the speed of light is independent of its source. Since his first postulate stated that the laws of physics must be the same in any system of our universe, it would seem logical that both systems mentioned in his theory would have the same laws with respect to light. This characteristic of light is the one that stands apart as that of a wave moving through a medium even though it is not expressed as such in the theory. The photon as a particle should not conform to it.

In Einstein's autobiographical notes (Volume I of Albert Einstein, Philosopher - Scientist when he was 67 years old, edited by Paul Arthur Schilpp) he states the following. The special theory of relativity owes its origin to Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic field. Inversely the latter can be grasped formally in satisfactory fashion only by way of the special theory of relativity. Maxwell's equations are the simplest Lorentz-invariant field equations which can be postulated for an anti-symmetric tensor derived from a vector field. This in itself would be satisfactory, if we did not know from quantum phenomena that Maxwell's theory does not do justice to the energetic properties of radiation. But how Maxwell's theory would have to be modified in a natural fashion, for this even the special theory of relativity offers no adequate foothold... Einstein goes on to tell why the special theory was only the beginning of a necessary development.

It appears that Einstein, even at this early time, was thinking in terms of a medium subject to analysis by tensor theory which is much like structural engineering in that it uses three planes (when working with three dimensions), each of which is subjected to shear, tension, and compression. In other words, Einstein was thinking of a medium for light to use in wave form. There are many other portions of these notes in which he states similar observations.

By using the constant velocity of light as his second postulate, he has covered himself in a way that allows there to be a medium in space. From there he departs into his math which is based upon the Lorentz transforms. I am not an expert on every theory, so I do not know if Lorentz or Einstein realized the origin of these transforms. They come from the Pythagorean Theorem which is a consequence of the law of conservation of energy and of our dimensional space. In fact, this theorem can be used to define multi-dimensional space.

The Pythagorean Theorem

As a consequence, the Lorentz factor can be found in a number of places now and we certainly have not discovered all of the places yet. The fact that Einstein found it as he developed his theory is not surprising. It is a fundamental factor in nether theory as well.

Einstein, having realized the limited nature of his special theory, went on to develop his general theory which led to his concept of gravity. Einstein was correct in his discovery that gravity slows the passage of time, that light passing outward from a gravitational mass would move more slowly and thus be red shifted, that gravity lensing would be a consequence of gravity upon light, that space and time are different near gravitating bodies, etc. However, according to nether theory, he was incorrect in thinking that there was a different geometry for the space-time continuum. It has since been shown that throughout space as so far observed, the geometry is Euclidean. Space is not curved due to gravity or for any other reason. This is in accord with nether theory.

Einstein published both his special theory and his general theory before it was known that the electron has innate "spin". By the time that spin was known, the scientific community was conditioned to think in terms of relativity and the corpuscular photon. Furthermore, the nature of the old ether was very different from that implied by electron spin, causing a different mode of thought to exist in regard to a medium for light to use in a wave form. Even so, Einstein succeeded in making a great number of very valuable discoveries. We should also bear in mind that Einstein must have been exceedingly devoted to his "work" because his theories are very complex and he did not have a personal computer. Very likely, I would not have thought to look for the possibility of time dilation, mass increase, or length contraction had it not been for Fitzgerald, Lorentz, and Einstein.

Einstein's discoveries are a natural development from the work performed by Maxwell, Lorentz, and others who came before. Growing up with relativity as a model, and then discovering the true nature of electron "spin", it was natural for those in a succeeding generation to develop nether theory which could be considered, in many ways, the next step that Einstein predicted when he talked about a unified field theory.

Relativity Compared to Nether Theory



Biographies - A Short History

The following quotes by Einstein were approved by him as is shown in the paragraph below.

Einstein writing to George Seldes, the editor of The Great Quotations, on October 13, 1954. I am gladly willing to review the quotations you intend sending me. Such a review is indeed necessary. For many things which go under my name are badly translated from the German or are invented by other people.

There have been many articles and books written by people who were supposedly quoting Einstein or telling what his opinion was regarding something. Some of these are in direct opposition to one another, so what Einstein wrote to George Seldes is obviously correct. In many instances I have seen it stated that Einstein did not believe in any form of ether, and these were written by the ubiquitous proponents of quantum electrodynamics (QED) who think of a photon as being particulate moving through the vacuum of space. I have other writings that state that Einstein developed his special theory to show that a form of ether exists - and that those who preached the particulate photon appropriated it for their own purposes. Then there is the middle-of-the-road statement that Einstein simply wanted to see if there could be a means of showing that space could be a vacuum. There are other examples of poor interpretations and outright untruth found in our latest texts in physics.

My first opinion from viewing Einstein's tensor wave work on light is that he had no particular prejudice toward the idea of space as a vacuum and that several people had pointed out the errors in his special theory, so he believed that he could discover how light could travel as a wave through a medium. Years later, after finding some of Einstein's original words and examining what he said, I realized that he had been working on a wave theory for light from well before 1905 and into his later life.

Einstein to Dr. M. I. Cohen, March 19, 1940. Great spirits have always found violent opposition from mediocrities. The latter cannot understand it when a man does not thoughtlessly submit to hereditary prejudices but honestly and courageously uses his intelligence and fulfills the duty to express the results of his thoughts in clear form.

From this quote, one can deduce that Einstein did not subscribe to the idea of politics dominating science and had little use for those who use their positions to block scientific progress. The following quote seems to indirectly infer this same feeling, since much of the obstruction in physics is caused by the desire of individuals to succeed in their grasping for more and more wealth, or at best their desire to remain as well endowed with material gain as possible.

Einstein as published in the Monthly Review, May, 1949. The crippling of the individuals I consider the worst evil of capitalism. Our whole educational system suffers from this evil. An exaggerated competitive attitude is inculcated into the student, who is trained to worship acquisitive success as a preparation for his future career.

From a personal memoir of Einstein to William Miller, an editor, Life, May 2, 1955. The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing. One cannot help but be in awe when he contemplates the mysteries of eternity, of life, of the marvelous structure of reality. It is enough if one tries merely to comprehend a little of this mystery every day. Never lose a holy curiosity.

Apparently, Einstein believed that true scientific progress was based upon healthy curiosity which is paramount and certainly not subservient to greed or ego. The following shows what Einstein thought of such things as the traditional way one is forced to attain an advanced degree where one must cater to tradition rather than new thought.

Einstein upon receiving the Lord & Taylor Award, 1953. It gives me great pleasure indeed to see the stubbornness of an incorrigible non-conformist warmly acclaimed.

The following shows Einstein's understanding of the politics of the world.

Einstein's address at the Sorbonne. If my theory of relativity is proven successful, Germany will claim me as a German and France will declare that I am a citizen of the world. Should my theory of relativity prove untrue, France will say that I am a German and Germany will declare that I am a Jew.

The popular Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is filled with uncertainty and is nothing like the view of science that preceded it. Einstein seems to have disliked this interpretation as do I. The less popular Bohm interpretation is a more likely candidate for truth.

Einstein in letter to Professor Max Born. Raffiniert ist der Herr Gott, aber boshaft ist Er nicht. Or in English: I cannot believe that God would choose to play dice with the world. If the German were translated more literally this quote would be: Mr. God is refined, however he is not mischievous.

It is my belief that it would have been a pleasure to know Albert Einstein, that he was capable of listening to new theories or old theories restated in a different manner. Apparently, one of his major goals in science and in life was to satisfy his curiosity. I also believe that, had it occurred to him, in his later life, that the electron was a vortex, he would have developed a sequel to his general theory of relativity, taking the new idea into account, and finished a valid unified theory.

Biographies - A Short History - Einstein
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