#### (Electromagnetic Radiation/Light Theory)

We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark.
The real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light.

Plato

##### Back - Main Menu Is There a Dynamic Ether? Sending the Energy - On Light from Behind Light's Illusion

The Electron

The electron is not a particle, but a vortex with ether (nether) moving into it just as air moves into a tornado or water moves into a whirlpool. A vortex of ether within a universe of ether extends as far as the universe exists. When such a vortex moves, it creates a disturbance within the ether surrounding it (the entire universe). This disturbance is a wave of ether acceleration which moves outward from the vortex center in a plane which is perpendicular to the direction of vortex motion. If the vortex reverses its direction another wave is produced but with opposite ether acceleration. Together, these two waves form what we call a wave of light, so that each actual wave of accelerating ether is what we call a half-wave of electromagnetic energy.

If the production of a single half-wave could be likened to a stone being dropped into a pond of water, (1) the dimension of polarization of the ensuing wave would be the vertical dimension of the falling stone, (2) an electromagnetic half-wave moving outward at the speed of light would be similar to the circular ripple of water moving outward in the plane of the pond surface, and (3) the acceleration produced in the electromagnetic half-wave would be acting parallel to and along the circumference of the expanding circle.

When an electron moves in any particular direction, a half-wave of light is produced, but this half-wave alone is only a small fraction of a photon and we cannot detect it as light. When this same vortex reverses direction, the half-wave produced is the second half of a full wave of light. But this is still a very small fraction of a photon and we cannot detect it as light. For light to be detected, the electron must vibrate consistently numerous times along the same path. The half-waves produced must find an electron which is located in a position where its rate of vibration when disturbed will match the frequency of the incoming series of half-waves (the photon).

Electromagnetic radiation is the general name for what is basically two types of phenomena. The first is natural EM which is given the name "light" for short, even though it comprises more than the octave of visible light. The second is manmade EM such as radio. A half-wave of natural EM is usually caused by a single electron in accelerated motion. A half-wave of manmade EM is usually caused by many electrons simultaneously in accelerated motion in the same direction within the same antenna.

EM is a type of wave moving through a medium. It is unlike any wave with which most of us are familiar. Its full complexity is enough to severely challenge the ability of any author to explain it. This portion of this website will attempt to give a simplified explanation of what can be found in Books Three and Four of the series called Behind Light's Illusion in the upcoming electronic version.

Photons

Particle physicists have decided that nature's EM is composed of "photons" which are particles with energy and no mass which bombard electrons capable of accepting the energy of the photon involved. Before this concept of a photon came to be, kinetic energy "Ek" was expressed by the equation:
Ek = mv2/2 where m is mass and v is velocity. The equation usually attributed to Einstein (which is not exactly a correct attribution),
E = mc2, means that energy is a form of mass and mass is form of energy. Thus, the supposedly massless photon is a form of pure energy.

Photon Energy

The photon has energy that is equal to "hf " where "h" is Planck's constant and "f " is the frequency of the photon. The single lightwave has a frequency of one. So the product of Planck's constant and "1/t" is, therefore, the energy in one wave of a photon (which is supposed to be a particle). The term "f " is actually the number of events happening in one second, or the number of waves passing in one second. Since the particle physicists insist that the photon is a particle and not a wave, I suppose they think that the particle wiggles to establish a frequency (number of wiggles in one second). Here one wiggle would have the energy equal to Planck's constant "h".

The photon as explained by most of our theoretical physicists, has energy proportional to its frequency. This is not precisely true and causes enough confusion, as so stated, to upset the thought processes of those who wish to understand what a photon is. A natural photon is created by a single electron falling from one energy level to another within an atom, and is doing so while vibrating at a particular frequency. However, this frequency is almost never radiated for precisely one second. So the energy of the natural photon is never really proportional to "hf " because "f " is based upon one second while the photon is not. It is only the concept of the photon as created by men that adheres to the one-second rule. Nature could not care what men come up with and Mother Nature will continue to make her photons last for intervals of time other than one second. The only reason that the energy of "hf " is given as the theoretical energy of a photon is to compare the energy of photons for a period that is the same for each and to conform to our system of time measuring. These are valid reasons, but saying that it is a correct measure of photon energy is misleading.

To understand a bit more about our difficulties in understanding due to time, one must realize that almost all our calculations are based upon a time of one second (or in other cases, an hour, a day, etc.). When one second is used in physics, it is very handy because one second has the value of "one" and if added or removed from an equation, is not a cause for alarm. Anything multipied by one still has the same magnitude. Anything divided by one still has the same magnitude. So one second is sometimes not seen and is also considered a constant of sorts by our subconscious minds. But nature does not care much about a time interval of one second. When the electron turns back at the end of one passage while producing a photon, it performs this change of direction in about 4x10 -22 second. In this tiny interval of time, the light half-wave is sent outward.

Dual Nature of the Photon

In contemporary theoretical physics as explained by particle physics, the photon is supposed to act as a particle part of the time and a wave another part of the time. With the foregoing in mind, does it seem logical that a photon is actually a particle? A wave can have the attributes of a particle, but can a particle logically have the attributes of a wave? It was only when some physicists decided that their pet theories were being threatened by the experimental evidence that the idea of a particle acting like a wave was put forth. I know of no example in nature prior to this example of theory-mending in which a particle is supposed to act like a wave.

Fitting the Buttons into the Holes

Since the concepts of space being empty (no ether for light as a wave) and the particulate photon were established by particle physicists, particle physicists have been faced with more and more difficulty in making their theories fit the facts. As my wife commented, they are like a small child buttoning his sweater. He inserts the lower button through the wrong buttonhole, continues to button the rest of the sweater, arrives at an inequality at the top button, and then tries to find a way to make one side fit the other without starting all over again.

The True Nature of the Photon

Looking upon the natural photon as a series of waves moving through a medium such as ether (what I call nether), the waves are created by the vortex we call the electron. The electron changes direction to create accelerations within the ether which are half-waves. A single half wave is what is now known as an electron neutrino. Two half-waves form a complete wave. A series of complete waves form a "photon" or a package which rhythmically affects a receiving electron which is "resonant" to the photon.

Resonance

Resonance is found in the old Ford automobiles (and maybe the new ones). Their suspension system had very little dampening. So one could, if he were not careful, turn the wheel to the right and cause the car to tip to the left due to its inertia. He could then turn the wheel to the left and cause the car to tip to the right. By doing this repeatedly at the correct frequency, he could match the frequency of the Ford's reacting suspension system. The Ford's suspension system was resonant to the frequency of the turning of the wheel. The energy thus produced could make the car roll over. A resonant electron is like the suspension system of the Ford. It will accept the energy of a photon with the correct frequency.

Inertia

Newton presented a law of Inertia. I call this a "passive law" and it applies to anything from physical objects to ideas. In essence, it states that anything will continue to behave as it is currently behaving until it is acted upon by something causing it to change. This is only common sense. Nothing would be likely to change, were it not acted upon by something to cause it to change. You may easily cite your own examples of this law since it applies to everything. The point is, something must create a change for a change to occur. This is very evident in physics where an object in "free" space can coast along forever at the same velocity, doing what it has been doing until something (like a gravity funnel or a collision) alters its velocity.

Acceleration vs Velocity

The acceleration portion of a half-wave of a photon is caused by an electron changing the direction in which its "mouth" is pointed. This creates a wave that is an acceleration of nether. When this wave arrives at a receiving electron, it orients the receiving electron so that its mouth points in particular direction. The receiving electron is pulled along by its mouth which is taking in nether in an energy-efficient manner. The next half-wave with its opposite orientation, causes the receiver to turn so that its mouth points in the opposite direction and, again, its mouth pulls it along. The resonant quality aids in furnishing the energy to move. The next half-wave and the resonance make the electron continue to move until the incoming photon is exhausted.

When scientist's began to use shortcuts in their procedures, the shortcuts often became forms of dogma in which future generations of scientists failed to understand the reality behind the procedures. The shortcuts then were labeled "laws". A law is not a reason for anything. It is merely a statement of an observation.
Ek = mv2/2 is now accepted as a "law" for kinetic energy. But actually, it is a mathematical shortcut which now tends to mask reality.
According to time-tested physics, Ek = Fd where "F" is "force" and "d" is "distance" over which the force acts.
F = ma where "m" is "mass" and "a" is "acceleration.
So: Ek = mad
Acceleration is d/t2 where "t" is "time".
This means that mad = m(d/t2)d = m(d/t)2.
Velocity is d/t, so m(d/t)2 = mv2.
One of the quantities called "d" is half of the other "d" (see the full explanation in Book Four of the BLI series).
So: Ek = mad = mv2/2, and we have our shortcut. The point is, kinetic energy is based upon acceleration - not velocity.

All change is based upon acceleration.

Arthur Holly Compton

After Planck and Einstein decided that the energy in one photon is "hf" where "h" is Planck's constant and "f " is frequency, Arthur Holly Compton (1923) performed a number of experiments with X-rays which led to the value for the momentum of a photon:

w = hf/c

where "w" is the momentum of a photon, and "c" is the speed of light.

At first, there were a number things that I perceived wrongly regarding the nature of light and Compton. Since then, I have been correcting my publications and attempting to show that Compton was correct in every respect. My apologies to Compton wherever he may be. He was an outstanding scientist.

For details see Compton.

Planck's Constant

Planck's constant, "h", is the currently accepted quantum (smallest quantity) of energy possible within a photon. The energy, "e", of a photon is the product of its frequency,
"f", and Planck's constant (e = hf). But this is the energy arbitrarily assigned to our artificial photon. In this case, frequency means the number of passages of one electromagnetic wave within one second of time. Planck's constant is the energy found within one wave. Those who believe that the photon is not a wave phenomenon still accept the wave-like nature of this energy equation. Although Planck's constant is still considered by most physicists to be the smallest quantum possible, the smallest is actually h/2 which is the energy in the half-wave.

Neutrinos

So light as we perceive it, is caused by a "package" of half-waves which we call a photon. These we can detect. But there are many "packages" with too few half-waves to qualify as a photon (not enough half-waves to cause a resonant electron to vibrate fully). Most of these are single half-waves, each caused by a "charged particle" (vortex) moving in a particular direction and then failing to go backward along the same path. These ubiquitous half-waves move at the speed of light. They have no mass because mass is equal to nether Mass taken into a vortex within a certain period of time. They are simply expanding ripples (or rings) of transverse ether acceleration without charge, micro-gravity (or any other form of gravity), and without sufficient electromagnetic energy to make themselves known except by direct collision. Each is composed of the rotational energy of an electron (the energy produced by the electron changing its direction of movement) or of "left-over" rotational energy from various subatomic changes. Each neutrino is a form of "ripple" momentum moving outward from a source.

Neutrinos have been theorized as bits of rotational energy that are necessary to balance certain equations. These travel at the speed of light, are very numerous (ubiquitous), without mass, without charge, and are virtually undetectable except by direct collision. My conclusion is that electron neutrinos are merely half-waves of light, and other neutrinos are half-waves caused by reactions of vortices other than electrons ("charged particles").

This is contrary to what was shown as a neutrino in the old editions of the BLI series because it makes more sense. Yes, I changed my mind.

No liberal man would impute a charge of unsteadiness
to another for having changed his opinion.

Cicero